Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 381, 1077-1092 (2007/November-1)
An optical spectroscopic HR diagram for low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in Orion.
RIDDICK F.C., ROCHE P.F. and LUCAS P.W.
Abstract (from CDS):
The masses and temperatures of young low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in star-forming regions are not yet well established because of uncertainties in the age of individual objects and the spectral type-temperature scale appropriate for objects with ages of only a few Myr. Using multi-object optical spectroscopy, 45 low-mass stars and brown dwarfs in the Trapezium Cluster in Orion have been classified and 44 of these confirmed as bona fide cluster members. The spectral types obtained have been converted to effective temperatures using a temperature scale intermediate between those of dwarfs and giants, which is suitable for young pre-main-sequence objects. The objects have been placed on a Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram overlaid with theoretical isochrones. The low-mass stars and the higher mass substellar objects are found to be clustered around the 1 Myr isochrone, while many of the lower mass substellar objects are located well above this isochrone. An average age of 1 Myr is found for the majority of the objects. Assuming coevality of the sources and an average age of 1 Myr, the masses of the objects have been estimated and range from 0.018 to 0.44M☉. The spectra also allow an investigation of the surface gravity of the objects by measurement of the sodium doublet equivalent width. With one possible exception, all objects have low gravities, in line with young ages, and the Na indices for the Trapezium objects lie systematically below those of young stars and brown dwarfs in Chamaeleon, suggesting that the 820 nm Na index may provide a sensitive means of estimating ages in young clusters.