Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 489, 195-206 (2008/10-1)
Near-IR bispectrum speckle interferometry, AO imaging polarimetry, and radiative transfer modeling of the proto-planetary nebula Frosty Leonis.
MURAKAWA K., OHNAKA K., DRIEBE T., HOFMANN K.-H., OYA S., SCHERTL D. and WEIGELT G.
Abstract (from CDS):
We combined bispectrum speckle interferometry, adaptive optics (AO) imaging polarimetry, and radiative transfer modeling of polarized light to derive various physical properties of the proto-planetary nebula Frosty Leo. We performed bispectrum K'-band speckle interferometry and H- and K-band imaging polarimetry of Frosty Leo using the ESO 3.6m telescope and the AO-equipped CIAO instrument of the 8m Subaru telescope, respectively. Two-dimensional radiative transfer modeling was carried out in order to obtain a quantitative interpretation of our observations. Our diffraction-limited speckle image shows distinct hourglass-shaped, point-symmetric bipolar lobes, an equatorial dust lane, and complex clumpy structures in the lobes. Our polarimetric data display a centro-symmetric polarization vector pattern with P∼30-50% in the bipolar lobes and a polarization disk between them. The polarization images also reveal an elongated region with low polarization along a position angle of -45°. The observations suggest that this region has a low dust density and was carved out by a jet-like outflow. Our radiative transfer modeling can simultaneously explain the observed spectral energy distribution, the intensity distribution of the hourglass-shaped lobes, and our polarization images if we use two grain species with sizes of 0.005≤a≤2.0µm at latitudes between -2° and +2°, and 0.005≤a≤0.7µm in the bipolar lobes. Assuming a distance of 3kpc, an expansion velocity of 25km/s, and a gas-to-dust mass ratio of 160, we derive a dust mass of the disk of 2.85x10–3M☉, a gas mass-loss rate of 8.97x10–3M☉/yr, and a total envelope mass of 4.23M☉.
Stars: AGB and post-AGB - circumstellar matter - radiative transfer - polarization - method: numerical - methods: observational