High-resolution far-infrared studies of intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence objects.
DI FRANCESCO J., EVANS II N.J., HARVEY P.M., MUNDY L.G. and BUTNER H.M.
Abstract (from CDS):
We have obtained high-resolution far-infrared maps of nine regions with 10 Herbig Ae/Be stars (intermediate-mass pre-main-sequence stars). Similar maps were obtained for 10 embedded IRAS sources with Sν(100 µm) > Sν(60 µm) and L ∼ 200 L☉, which are possible evolutionary precursors of Herbig Ae/Be stars. Single far-infrared sources were found in most maps. The embedded sources have positions in agreement with those of the IRAS PSC, but some of the Herbig Ae/Be stars are offset significantly from the position of peak far-infrared emission. For all objects where it was possible to obtain 100 µm flux densities, they are consistent with those observed by IRAS, but derived 50 µm flux densities are larger than expected. The far-infrared maps reveal that objects in at least 17 of 19 emission regions are significantly extended at the 30"-40" resolution of the Kuiper Airborne Observatory at 100 µm. Only sources associated with AB Aur and possibly IRAS 05338-0624 have unresolved far-infrared emission. Detailed analyses of the flux densities and positions from our maps suggest the far-infrared emission in regions with Herbig Ae/Be stars may not immediately surround these stars in all cases. Instead, far-infrared emission from these objects may originate from dust heated externally by the Herbig stars, or from dust heated internally by other sources. For other objects arguably surrounded by far-infrared emission, the Herbig stars or embedded IRAS objects have similar mean deconvolved sizes (i.e., 0.10-0.15 pc), but possibly have different mean deconvolved shapes (i.e., aspect ratios). Thus, far-infrared emission here may originate from flattened dust envelopes; the appearance of a far-infrared object as either a Herbig Ae/Be star or an embedded IRAS source may be merely a matter of viewing orientation.