Infrared planetary nebulae in the NRAO VLA sky survey.
CONDON J.J., KAPLAN D.L. and TERZIAN Y.
Abstract (from CDS):
In order to construct a sample of planetary nebulae (PNe) unbiased by dust extinction, we first selected the 1358 sources in the IRAS Point Source Catalog north of J2000 declination δ=-40° having measured S(25 µm)≥1 Jy and colors characteristic of PNe: detections or upper limits consistent with both S(12 µm)≤0.35S(25 µm) and S(25 µm)≥0.35S(60 µm). The majority are radio-quiet contaminating sources such as asymptotic giant branch stars. Free-free emission from genuine PNe should make them radio sources. The 1.4 GHz NRAO VLA Sky Survey (NVSS) images and source catalog were used to reject radio-quiet mid-infrared sources. We identified 454 IRAS sources with radio sources brighter than S~2.5 mJy.beam–1 (equivalent to T~0.8 K in the 45" FHWM NVSS beam) by positional coincidence. They comprise 332 known PNe in the Strasbourg-ESO Catalogue of Galactic Planetary Nebulae and 122 candidate PNe, most of which lie at very low Galactic latitudes. Exploratory optical spectroscopic observations suggest that most of these candidates are indeed PNe optically dimmed by dust extinction, although some contamination remains from H II regions, Seyfert galaxies, etc. Furthermore, the NVSS failed to detect only 4% of the known PNe in our infrared sample. Thus it appears that radio selection can greatly improve the reliability of PN candidate samples without sacrificingcompleteness.
Catalogs - ISM: Dust, Extinction - Infrared: ISM: Continuum - ISM: Planetary Nebulae: General - Radio Continuum: ISM