2000AJ....120.3162L


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.02.25CET22:08:08

2000AJ....120.3162L - Astron. J., 120, 3162-3176 (2000/December-0)

Infrared l-band observations of the Trapezium cluster: a census of circumstellar disks and candidate protostars.

LADA C.J., MUENCH A.A., HAISCH K.E.Jr, LADA E.A., ALVES J.F., TOLLESTRUP E.V. and WILLNER S.P.

Abstract (from CDS):

We report the results of a sensitive near-infrared JHKL imaging survey of the Trapezium cluster in Orion. We use the JHKL colors to obtain a census of infrared excess stars in the cluster. Of (391) stars brighter than 12th magnitude in the K and L bands, 80%±7% are found to exhibit detectable infrared excess on the J-H, K-L color-color diagram. Examination of a subsample of 285 of these stars with published spectral types yields a slightly higher infrared excess fraction of 85%. We find that 97% of the optical proplyds in the cluster exhibit excess in the JHKL color-color diagram indicating that the most likely origin of the observed infrared excesses is from circumstellar disks. We interpret these results to indicate that the fraction of stars in the cluster with circumstellar disks is between 80%-85%, confirming earlier published suggestions of a high disk fraction for this young cluster. Moreover, we find that the probability of finding an infrared excess around a star is independent of stellar mass over essentially the entire range of the stellar mass function down to the hydrogen burning limit. Consequently, the vast majority of stars in the Trapezium cluster appear to have been born with circumstellar disks and the potential to subsequently form planetary systems, despite formation within the environment of a rich and dense stellar cluster. We identify 78 stars in our sample characterized by K-L colors suggestive of deeply embedded objects. The spatial distribution of these objects differs from that of the rest of the cluster members and is similar to that of the dense molecular cloud ridge behind the cluster. About half of these objects are detected in the short wavelength (J and H) bands, and these are found to be characterized by extreme infrared excess. This suggests that many of these sources could be protostellar in nature. If even a modest fraction (i.e., ∼50%) of these objects are protostars, then star formation could be continuing in the molecular ridge at a rate comparable to that which produced the foreground Trapezium cluster.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Stars: Circumstellar Matter - Infrared Radiation - Galaxy: Open Clusters and Associations: Individual: Name: Trapezium - Stars: Formation

Nomenclature: Table 1: TPSC NN (Nos 1-78).

CDS comments: T.1: objects TPSC 1, 6 and 44 missing in the machine-readable version of the table.

Simbad objects: 100

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Number of rows : 100

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 HD 18881 * 03 03 31.9447787130 +38 24 36.074494463   7.12 7.14     A0 75 0
2 NAME Orion Nebula Cluster OpC 05 35.0 -05 29           ~ 1932 1
3 MLLA 115 Y*O 05 35 05.15 -05 25 01.6           ~ 2 0
4 V* V2150 Ori Or* 05 35 05.3759128143 -05 24 10.558085935   18.906 17.604 15.15 14.022 M0 33 0
5 V* V2156 Ori Or* 05 35 05.6814849610 -05 23 45.342775624   15.5     17.063 M5:: 18 0
6 V* V2176 Ori Or* 05 35 07.735 -05 21 01.48         17.784 ~ 19 0
7 * lam Ori ** 05 35 08.27761 +09 56 02.9611 2.45 3.48 3.66 3.72 3.89 O8IIIf+B0.5V 264 1
8 COUP 369 Y*O 05 35 10.3839 -05 22 59.869           ~ 7 0
9 COUP J053510.6-052332 Y*O 05 35 10.688 -05 23 32.77           ~ 5 0
10 COUP J053510.7-052220 Y*O 05 35 10.7100 -05 22 20.300           ~ 6 0
11 2MASS J05351091-0522463 Y*O 05 35 10.917 -05 22 46.38   12.9 16.860   15.005 M2.7e 34 0
12 2MASS J05351097-0521465 Y*O 05 35 10.974 -05 21 46.54           ~ 6 0
13 V* V2213 Ori Or* 05 35 11.195 -05 22 37.77           M2 17 0
14 2MASS J05351131-0524381 Y*O 05 35 11.317 -05 24 38.19           ~ 12 0
15 MAX 19 Y*O 05 35 11.4880 -05 23 51.910           ~ 9 0
16 V* V2217 Ori Or* 05 35 11.514 -05 25 53.27           ~ 7 0
17 CXOONC J053511.7-052333 Y*O 05 35 11.741 -05 23 33.51           ~ 8 0
18 MAX 22 Y*O 05 35 11.8449 -05 21 00.291           ~ 9 0
19 COUP 472 Y*O 05 35 12.1885 -05 24 56.457           ~ 11 0
20 COUP 484 Y*O 05 35 12.4954 -05 24 38.148           ~ 8 0
21 TPSC 17 Y*O 05 35 12.88 -05 21 33.9           ~ 1 0
22 MLLA 899 Y*O 05 35 13.37522 -05 20 51.4979           ~ 7 0
23 MAX 40 Y*O 05 35 13.4023 -05 23 29.225           ~ 12 0
24 2MASS J05351356-0523552 Y*O 05 35 13.56 -05 23 55.3           ~ 30 0
25 CXOONC J053513.5-052400 Y*O 05 35 13.6 -05 23 59           ~ 25 0
26 2MASS J05351362-0519548 Y*O 05 35 13.6239501996 -05 19 54.816011026   14.0 18.903   13.964 K5 39 0
27 2MASS J05351371-0521358 Y*O 05 35 13.719 -05 21 35.88           ~ 14 0
28 Parenago 1821 Y*O 05 35 13.7427694483 -05 22 21.970532072 17.886 17.435 16.559   13.422 M2e 38 0
29 [OW94] 138-340 Y*O 05 35 13.7814 -05 23 39.990           ~ 26 0
30 V* V2248 Ori Or* 05 35 13.801 -05 21 59.66           ~ 28 1
31 NAME OMC-1 MoC 05 35 14 -05 22.4           ~ 1001 2
32 NAME Orion-KL SFR 05 35 14.16 -05 22 21.5           ~ 1968 1
33 CXOONC J053514.2-052304 Y*O 05 35 14.2900 -05 23 04.300           ~ 16 0
34 TPSC 7 Y*O 05 35 14.32 -05 23 08.3           ~ 1 0
35 NAME Ori N Y*O 05 35 14.35371 -05 22 32.8820           ~ 101 0
36 MLLA 293 Y*O 05 35 14.3976 -05 23 50.914           ~ 26 0
37 [RLK73] IRc 2 IR 05 35 14.51548 -05 22 30.5943           ~ 565 1
38 TPSC 2 Y*O 05 35 14.55 -05 23 55.1           ~ 2 0
39 TPSC 68 Y*O 05 35 14.55 -05 23 03.6           ~ 1 0
40 TPSC 77 Y*O 05 35 14.74 -05 22 29.7           ~ 1 0
41 2MASS J05351495-0521009 Y*O 05 35 14.951 -05 21 00.94           ~ 8 0
42 2MASS J05351519-0522367 Y*O 05 35 15.193 -05 22 36.79           ~ 16 0
43 MLLA 821 Y*O 05 35 15.3046 -05 21 28.809           ~ 10 0
44 TPSC 12 Y*O 05 35 15.40 -05 21 39.6           ~ 1 0
45 COUP 725 * 05 35 15.6793 -05 23 39.011           ~ 17 1
46 TPSC 49 Y*O 05 35 15.69 -05 23 39.5           ~ 1 1
47 2MASS J05351587-0522328 Y*O 05 35 15.874 -05 22 32.83     20.60   15.697 M2.5:e 23 0
48 TCC 55 Y*O 05 35 16.0785 -05 22 54.123           M3 18 0
49 [FRM2016] 291 Y*O 05 35 16.25 -05 22 10.6   13.7     14.966 M1.5-M2e 25 0
50 MAX 102 * 05 35 16.2900 -05 22 10.400           ~ 16 0
51 MAX 109 Y*O 05 35 16.3733 -05 24 36.960           ~ 9 0
52 * tet01 Ori C ** 05 35 16.46375 -05 23 22.8486 4.20 5.15 5.13 4.91 4.73 O7Vp 1265 1
53 NAME Trapezium Cluster As* 05 35 16.5 -05 23 14           ~ 1445 1
54 TPSC 4 Y*O 05 35 16.65 -05 21 52.6           ~ 1 0
55 M 42 HII 05 35 17.3 -05 23 28           ~ 3684 0
56 COUP 878 Y*O 05 35 17.3566 -05 22 45.956           ~ 13 0
57 COUP J053517.5-052200 Y*O 05 35 17.5500 -05 22 00.300           ~ 7 0
58 TPSC 19 Y*O 05 35 17.56 -05 21 45.6           ~ 1 0
59 TPSC 30 Y*O 05 35 17.78 -05 23 42.4           ~ 1 0
60 MLLA 153 Y*O 05 35 17.84 -05 24 47.5           ~ 2 0
61 MAX 139 Y*O 05 35 17.8711 -05 22 02.805           ~ 11 0
62 COUP J053517.8-052153 Y*O 05 35 17.885 -05 21 53.66           ~ 5 0
63 [DRS2009] 874 Y*O 05 35 17.91 -05 20 55.4         14.906 ~ 10 0
64 2MASS J05351814-0520295 Y*O 05 35 18.142 -05 20 29.52           ~ 4 0
65 TPSC 28 Y*O 05 35 18.24 -05 24 13.2           ~ 1 0
66 CXOONC J053518.5-052150 Y*O 05 35 18.542 -05 21 50.03           ~ 8 0
67 V* AF Ori Or* 05 35 18.6662798791 -05 23 13.945021737         12.526 K2-K5e 47 0
68 COUP 998 * 05 35 18.83 -05 22 23.0         16.111 ~ 18 0
69 ISOY J053518.84-052223.2 * 05 35 18.8452 -05 22 23.276           ~ 14 0
70 [MRD2012] 2390 Y*O 05 35 18.8823928669 -05 20 30.924281614   14.5 19.377   15.862 K1 15 1
71 TPSC 54 Y*O 05 35 19.08 -05 23 07.1           ~ 1 0
72 V* V2350 Ori Or* 05 35 19.3704 -05 25 42.090           ~ 12 0
73 CXOONC J053519.3-052306 Y*O 05 35 19.3800 -05 23 06.500           ~ 11 0
74 MLLA 762 Y*O 05 35 19.5428 -05 21 49.017           ~ 8 0
75 V* V2353 Ori Or* 05 35 19.60 -05 20 01.8           ~ 9 0
76 2MASS J05351981-0522216 Y*O 05 35 19.82 -05 22 21.6 16.740 17.342 16.955   14.641 M2.1e 35 0
77 MLLA 741 Y*O 05 35 19.9603 -05 21 54.021           ~ 10 0
78 OMC 3 MoC 05 35 20.0 -05 01 00           ~ 215 1
79 MLLA 72 Y*O 05 35 20.035 -05 25 22.33           ~ 7 0
80 TPSC 38 Y*O 05 35 20.27 -05 25 04.1           ~ 1 0
81 2MASS J05352030-0519578 Y*O 05 35 20.308 -05 19 57.86           ~ 7 0
82 V* V2373 Ori Or* 05 35 21.00 -05 20 43.1           ~ 11 0
83 COUP J053521.2-052316 Y*O 05 35 21.239 -05 23 16.95           ~ 6 0
84 2MASS J05352181-0520078 Y*O 05 35 21.814 -05 20 07.87           M9 7 0
85 TPSC 25 Y*O 05 35 22.28 -05 21 42.6           ~ 1 0
86 TPSC 61 Y*O 05 35 23.89 -05 23 33.1           ~ 1 0
87 2MASS J05352392-0520103 Y*O 05 35 23.92 -05 20 10.3           ~ 5 0
88 2MASS J05352461-0519551 Y*O 05 35 24.61 -05 19 55.1           ~ 6 0
89 V* V2428 Ori Or* 05 35 24.62 -05 21 04.3           ~ 11 0
90 OMC 2 MoC 05 35 27 -05 10.1           ~ 376 1
91 MLLA 429 Y*O 05 35 27.215 -05 23 15.91           ~ 3 0
92 V* V2469 Ori Or* 05 35 27.76 -05 21 18.8           ~ 10 0
93 NAME Ori A MoC 05 38 -07.1           ~ 2639 0
94 NGC 2024 Cl* 05 41 43 -01 50.5           ~ 1060 1
95 HD 40335 * 05 58 13.5235890585 +01 51 23.008677000   7.16 6.91     A1II 79 0
96 HD 44612 * 06 24 46.6046456745 +43 32 54.511678446   7.23 7.22     A0 37 0
97 NGC 2362 OpC 07 18 41 -24 57.3     4.1     ~ 358 0
98 V* IX UMa dS* 09 48 44.6448268924 +43 39 55.612017174 8.12 8.00 7.90 7.80 7.77 A2II 53 0
99 HD 105601 PM* 12 09 27.7964607975 +38 37 54.632542999 7.80 7.70 7.39 7.13 7.02 Am 84 0
100 HD 203856 * 21 23 35.5297106889 +40 01 07.021382015   7.33 7.21     A0V 77 0

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2020.02.25-22:08:08

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