SIMBAD references

2000ApJ...543..245W - Astrophys. J., 543, 245-256 (2000/November-1)

The location of the dense and ionized gas in the NGC 2023 photon-dominated region.


Abstract (from CDS):

The VLA and the BIMA array were used to obtain high-resolution (10"-20") observations of C+, traced by the C91α recombination line at 8.6 GHz, and the dense molecular gas, traced by HCN and HCO+(1-0), of the photon-dominated region (PDR) associated with the reflection nebula NGC 2023. Using the VLA, continuum emission is detected at 8.6 GHz from a faint H II region associated with HD 37903. The C91α emission originates from a 0.4 pc long filament, extending from the east to the south of the exciting star HD 37903. Within the filament three C91α clumps can be distinguished, each associated with filamentary vibrationally excited H2 emission in the direction toward HD 37903. The HCO+ emission has a clumpy appearance superimposed on a more extended component. C91α is, in general, closer to the exciting star than HCO+ emission as expected from PDR models. The morphologies of HCO+ and HCN are quite similar. Based on the C91α line width toward one of the clumps, a limit of 170 K on the kinetic temperature in the ionized carbon layer can be derived. This value is consistent with PDR models with H2 densities of about 105 cm–3. However, this result suggests surprisingly low limits on the turbulence in the PDR. We detected a compact 3 mm continuum source in the PDR, which appears to be a cold ``core'' of density 107 cm–3, 0.03 pc diameter, and 6 M. We conclude that it may have formed within the PDR. In an appendix, observations of the C91α recombination line toward five additional PDRs using the Effelsberg 100 m telescope are described.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): ISM: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 2023 - ISM: Structure - Radio Lines: ISM - Techniques: Interferometric

Nomenclature: Fig.2, Table2: [WWG2000] Clump N (Nos 1-3).

CDS comments: p. 246 : QSOs 0607-085 and 0609-157 are J0607-085 and J0609-157

Simbad objects: 19

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