The 2-10 keV X-ray background dipole and its cosmological implications.
SCHARF C.A., JAHODA K., TREYER M., LAHAV O., BOLDT E. and PIRAN T.
Abstract (from CDS):
The hard X-ray (>2 keV) emission of the local and distant universe as observed with the HEAO 1 A-2 experiment is reconsidered in the context of large-scale cosmic structure. Using all-sky X-ray samples of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and galaxy clusters, we remove the dominant local X-ray flux from within a redshift of ∼0.02. We evaluate the dipolar and higher order harmonic structure in four X-ray colors. The estimated dipole anisotropy of the unresolved flux appears to be consistent with a combination of the Compton-Getting effect due to the Local Group motion (dipole amplitude Δ=0.0042) and remaining large-scale structure (0.0023≲Δ≲0.0085), in good agreement with the expectations of cold dark matter models. The observed anisotropy does, however, also suggest a nonnegligible Galactic contribution that is more complex than current, simple models of >2 keV Galactic X-ray emission. Comparison of the soft and hard color maps with a harmonic analysis of the 1.5 keV ROSAT all-sky data qualitatively suggests that at least a third of the faint, unresolved ∼18° scale structure in the HEAO 1 A-2 data may be Galactic in origin. However, the effect on measured flux dipoles is small (≲3%). We derive an expression for dipole anisotropy and acceleration and demonstrate how the dipole anisotropy of the distant X-ray frame can constrain the amplitude of bulk motions of the universe. From observed bulk motions over a local ∼50 h–1 Mpc radius volume, we determine 0.14≲Ω0.60/bX(0)≲0.59, where Ω0 is the universal density parameter and bX(0) is the present-epoch bias parameter, defined as the ratio of fluctuations in the X-ray source density and the mass density.
Cosmology: Observations - Cosmology: Large-Scale Structure of Universe - X-Rays: General