SIMBAD references

2000ApJS..129..295G - Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser., 129, 295-313 (2000/July-0)

ROSAT observations of X-ray emission from planetary nebulae.

GUERRERO M.A., CHU Y.-H. and GRUENDL R.A.

Abstract (from CDS):

We have searched the entire ROSAT archive for useful observations to study X-ray emission from Galactic planetary nebulae (PNs). The search yields a sample of 63 PNs, which we call the ROSAT PN sample. About 20%-25% of this sample show X-ray emission; these include 13 definite detections and three possible detections (at a 2 σ level). All X-ray sources in these PNs are concentrated near the central stars. Only A30, BD +30°3639, and NGC 6543 are marginally resolved by the ROSAT instruments.

Three types of X-ray spectra are seen in PNs. Type 1 consists of only soft X-ray emission (<0.5 keV), peaks at 0.1-0.2 keV, and can be fitted by blackbody models at temperatures 1-2x105 K. Type 2 consists of harder X-ray emission, peaks above 0.5 keV, and can be fitted by thin plasma emission models at temperatures of a few times 106 K. Type 3 is a composite of a bright type 1 component and a fainter type 2 component.

Unresolved soft sources with type 1 spectra or the soft component of type 3 spectra are most likely photospheric emission from the hot central stars. Absorption cross sections are large for these soft-energy photons; therefore, only large, tenuous, evolved PNs with hot central stars and small absorption column densities have been detected.

The origin of hard X-ray emission from PNs is uncertain. PNs with type 2 spectra are small, dense, young nebulae with relatively cool ({Lt}105 K) central stars, while PNs with type 3 X-ray spectra are large, tenuous, evolved nebulae with hot central stars. The hard X-ray luminosities are also different between these two types of PNs, indicating perhaps different origins of their hard X-ray emission. Future Chandra and XMM observations with high spatial and spectral resolution will help to understand the origin of hard X-ray emission from PNs.


Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): ISM: Planetary Nebulae: General - Stars: AGB and Post-AGB - X-Rays: ISM - X-Rays: Stars

Simbad objects: 81

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