2001AJ....121.2271S


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.04.09CEST15:32:36

2001AJ....121.2271S - Astron. J., 121, 2271-2288 (2001/May-0)

The Tolman surface brightness test for the reality of the expansion. I. Calibration of the necessary local parameters.

SANDAGE A. and LUBIN L.M.

Abstract (from CDS):

The extensive CCD photometry by Postman & Lauer in the Cape/Cousins R photometric band for first-ranked cluster elliptical and S0 galaxies in 118 low redshift (<z>=0.037) clusters is analyzed for the correlations between average surface brightness, linear radius, and absolute magnitude. The purpose is to calibrate the correlations between these three parameters in the limit of zero redshift. The Postman-Lauer cluster galaxies at low redshift approximate this limit. We apply small corrections for the finite mean redshift of the sample in order to define the zero-redshift correlations. These local correlations provide the comparisons to be made in Paper IV with the sample of early-type galaxies at high redshift in search of the Tolman surface brightness signal of (1+z)4 if the expansion is real.

Surface brightness averages are calculated at various metric radii in each galaxy in the sample. The definition of such radii by Petrosian uses ratios of observed surface photometric data. Petrosian radii have important properties for the Tolman test which are reviewed in this paper. The observed surface brightnesses are listed for 118 first-ranked cluster galaxies at Petrosian η radii of 1.0, 1.3, 1.5, 1.7, 2.0, and 2.5 mag. The three local diagnostic correlation diagrams are defined and discussed. We review the Tolman test and show that, although recipes from the standard cosmological model that already have the Tolman signal incorporated are required to calculate linear radii and absolute magnitudes from the observed data, the test is nevertheless free from the hermeneutical circularity dilemma occasionally claimed in the literature. The reasons are the observed mean surface brightness (1) is independent of any assumptions of cosmological model, (2) does not depend on the existence of a Tolman signal because it is calculated directly from the data using only angular radii and apparent magnitudes, and (3) can be used to search for the Tolman signal because it carries the bulk of that signal.


Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Cosmology: Observations - Galaxies: Clusters: General

Status at CDS:  

Simbad objects: 125

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Number of rows : 125

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 ACO 2717 ClG 00 03 12.9 -35 56 13           ~ 126 0
2 ACO 2731 ClG 00 10 11 -56 59.3           ~ 23 0
3 ACO 2806 ClG 00 40 10 -56 09.5           ~ 39 1
4 ACO 76 ClG 00 40 16.1031 +06 52 46.226           ~ 123 2
5 ACO 119 ClG 00 56 16.8 -01 15 00           ~ 512 2
6 ACO 2869 ClG 01 07 15 -44 03.0           ~ 2 0
7 ACO 2870 ClG 01 07 42.57 -46 54 28.9           ~ 34 1
8 ACO 147 ClG 01 08 10 +02 10.0           ~ 106 0
9 ACO 2877 ClG 01 09 49.3 -45 54 02           ~ 134 2
10 ACO 2881 ClG 01 11 15 -17 05.1           ~ 14 1
11 ACO 160 ClG 01 12 59.572 +15 29 28.65           ~ 161 0
12 ACO 168 ClG 01 15 09.8 +00 14 51           ~ 314 2
13 ACO 189 ClG 01 23 40.4 +01 38 38           ~ 98 1
14 ACO 193 ClG 01 25 07.3 +08 41 36           ~ 172 0
15 ACO 194 ClG 01 26 01.3 -01 22 02           ~ 328 2
16 ACO 2911 ClG 01 26 12.9 -37 56 22           ~ 61 0
17 ACO 195 ClG 01 26 54.5 +19 12 42           ~ 82 0
18 ACO 261 ClG 01 51 26 -02 14.2           ~ 44 0
19 ACO 260 ClG 01 51 53 +33 09.8           ~ 57 0
20 ACO 262 ClG 01 52 50.4 +36 08 46           ~ 647 1
21 ACO 347 ClG 02 25 50 +41 52.5           ~ 142 1
22 ACO 376 ClG 02 45 48 +36 51.6           B8.5 143 1
23 ACO 397 ClG 02 56 58 +15 57.0           ~ 78 0
24 ACO 407 ClG 03 01 43.7 +35 49 48           ~ 101 0
25 ACO 419 ClG 03 08 15.85 -23 41 29.0           ~ 58 0
26 ACO 3144 ClG 03 37 23.1 -55 06 18           ~ 33 0
27 ACO S 373 ClG 03 38 30 -35 27.3           ~ 1514 0
28 ACO 3193 ClG 04 00 40.820 -52 44 02.72           ~ 33 0
29 ACO 496 ClG 04 33 30.3838 -13 14 21.584           ~ 655 2
30 ACO 533 ClG 05 01 30 -22 36.7           ~ 42 0
31 ACO 539 ClG 05 16 35.1 +06 27 14           ~ 240 2
32 ACO 548 ClG 05 47 01.7 -25 36 59           B8 194 2
33 ACO 3367 ClG 05 49 21 -24 28.1           ~ 29 0
34 ACO 3374 ClG 05 56 55 -21 15.7           ~ 16 0
35 ACO 3376 ClG 06 01 42.1521 -39 59 06.227           ~ 263 0
36 ACO 3381 ClG 06 09.9 -33 36           ~ 74 2
37 ACO 3389 ClG 06 21 47.4 -64 57 35           ~ 60 3
38 ACO 3395 ClG 06 27 31.1 -54 23 58           ~ 174 0
39 ACO 569 ClG 07 09 10.4 +48 37 10           ~ 165 1
40 ACO 576 ClG 07 21 24.1 +55 44 20           ~ 281 1
41 ACO 634 ClG 08 14 33 +58 02.9           ~ 95 0
42 ACO 671 ClG 08 28 31.97 +30 24 19.7           ~ 148 0
43 ACO 779 ClG 09 19 48.0 +33 45 32           ~ 238 0
44 ACO 912 ClG 10 01 09.54 -00 04 47.0           ~ 55 0
45 ACO 957 ClG 10 13 38.42 -00 55 32.6           ~ 188 2
46 ACO 999 ClG 10 23 22.1 +12 51 48           ~ 88 1
47 ACO 1016 ClG 10 27.0 +10 59           ~ 79 1
48 NAME Hydra I Cluster ClG 10 36 36.0 -27 31 04           ~ 769 1
49 M 105 LIN 10 47 49.600 +12 34 53.87   10.56 9.76 9.12 8.18 ~ 1373 0
50 ACO 1100 ClG 10 48 45.7 +22 14 25           ~ 43 0
51 ACO 1139 ClG 10 58 10.98 +01 36 16.4           ~ 149 3
52 ACO 1142 ClG 11 00 50.9 +10 33 17           ~ 143 1
53 ACO 1177 ClG 11 09 27 +21 41.7           ~ 90 1
54 ACO 1185 ClG 11 10 31.4 +28 43 39           ~ 242 1
55 ACO 1213 ClG 11 16 29.1 +29 15 37           ~ 144 0
56 ACO 1228 ClG 11 21 30.5 +34 13 21           ~ 123 1
57 ACO 1257 ClG 11 25 45 +35 20.6           ~ 64 1
58 ACO 1267 ClG 11 27 56 +26 51.5           ~ 54 0
59 ACO 1308 ClG 11 32 58.53 -03 53 14.2           ~ 66 0
60 ACO 1314 ClG 11 34 48.7 +49 02 25           ~ 193 1
61 ACO 1367 ClG 11 44 44.6 +19 41 59           ~ 982 1
62 NAME Vir I ClG 12 26 32.1 +12 43 24   10.00 8.49     ~ 5754 0
63 ACO 3526 ClG 12 48 51.8 -41 18 21           ~ 964 2
64 ACO 1631 ClG 12 52 50.6 -15 25 37           ~ 161 1
65 ACO 3528 ClG 12 54 18.2 -29 01 16           ~ 148 1
66 ACO 3530 ClG 12 55 36 -30 21.2           ~ 86 0
67 ACO 1644 ClG 12 57 11.6 -17 24 34           ~ 325 1
68 ACO 3532 ClG 12 57 19.2 -30 22 13           ~ 151 2
69 ACO 1656 ClG 12 59 48.7 +27 58 50           ~ 4168 2
70 ACO 3537 ClG 13 01 01.64 -32 26 20.6           ~ 50 3
71 ACO 3542 ClG 13 08 41 -34 34.0           ~ 23 0
72 ACO 3553 ClG 13 19 14 -37 10.8           ~ 23 0
73 ACO 3554 ClG 13 19 30 -33 28.7           ~ 38 0
74 ACO 3556 ClG 13 24 06.2 -31 39 38           ~ 137 0
75 ClG 1322+3027 ClG 13 24 48.2 +30 11 34           ~ 65 0
76 ACO 1736 ClG 13 26 52.1 -27 06 33           ~ 233 2
77 ACO 3559 ClG 13 29 53.9 -29 31 29           ~ 65 0
78 ACO 3560 ClG 13 32 23.7 -33 08 21           ~ 117 1
79 ACO 3562 ClG 13 33 31.8 -31 40 23           ~ 280 1
80 ACO 3564 ClG 13 34 22 -35 13.4           ~ 33 0
81 ACO 3565 ClG 13 36 39 -33 58.3           ~ 100 1
82 ACO 3566 ClG 13 38 59 -35 33.2           ~ 40 0
83 ACO 3570 ClG 13 46 50 -37 55.0           ~ 48 3
84 ACO 3571 ClG 13 47 28.9 -32 51 57           ~ 261 2
85 ACO 3572 ClG 13 48 11 -33 22.9           ~ 25 0
86 NAME IC 4329 Group GrG 13 48 36.4 -30 30 13           ~ 130 2
87 ACO 3575 ClG 13 52 35 -32 52.8           ~ 26 0
88 ACO 1836 ClG 14 01 40 -11 36.5           ~ 76 0
89 ACO 3581 ClG 14 07 29.8 -27 01 04           ~ 162 3
90 ACO 1983 ClG 14 52 44.0 +16 44 46           ~ 232 1
91 ACO 2040 ClG 15 12 45.2 +07 25 48           ~ 136 1
92 ACO 2052 ClG 15 16 45.5 +07 00 01           ~ 669 1
93 ACO 2063 ClG 15 23 01.8 +08 38 22           ~ 367 2
94 ACO 2107 ClG 15 39 47.9 +21 46 21           ~ 229 0
95 ACO 2147 ClG 16 02 17.2 +15 53 43           ~ 370 0
96 ClG 1603+4313 ClG 16 04 23.7 +43 04 52           ~ 126 1
97 ClG 1603+4329 SCG 16 04 31.5 +43 21 17           ~ 35 1
98 ClG 1602.9+4329 ClG 16 04 35.3 +43 21 02           ~ 48 1
99 ACO 2151 ClG 16 05 15.0 +17 44 55           ~ 549 3
100 ACO 2152 ClG 16 05 22.4 +16 26 55           ~ 151 0
101 ACO 2162 ClG 16 12 30.0 +29 32 23           ~ 142 0
102 ACO 2197 ClG 16 28 10.4 +40 54 26           ~ 269 0
103 ACO 2199 ClG 16 28 37.0 +39 31 28           ~ 1094 1
104 ACO 2247 ClG 16 47 22 +81 34.0           ~ 56 0
105 [T87] 1957.2-3840 GrG 19 58 53.9 -38 20 43           ~ 45 2
106 ACO 3676 ClG 20 25 19 -40 21.2           ~ 8 0
107 ACO 3677 ClG 20 26 21 -33 21.1           ~ 28 0
108 ACO 3698 ClG 20 35 58 -25 16.6           ~ 28 0
109 ACO 3716 ClG 20 51 16.7 -52 41 43           ~ 105 1
110 ACO 3733 ClG 21 01 50.0 -28 06 54           ~ 59 3
111 ACO 3736 ClG 21 03 43.0785 -43 19 33.103           ~ 19 0
112 ACO 3742 ClG 21 06 41 -47 08.9           ~ 42 2
113 ACO 3744 ClG 21 07 13.8 -25 28 54           ~ 73 1
114 ACO 3747 ClG 21 08 41 -43 29.8           ~ 20 0
115 ACO 3869 ClG 22 21 26 -55 07.9           ~ 21 0
116 ACO 2572 ClG 23 18 31.2 +18 41 52           ~ 127 1
117 ACO 2589 ClG 23 24 00.5 +16 49 29           ~ 294 1
118 ACO 2593 ClG 23 24 31.0 +14 38 29           ~ 194 0
119 ACO 2634 ClG 23 38 18.4 +27 01 37           ~ 475 2
120 ACO 2657 ClG 23 44 51.0 +09 08 40           ~ 257 3
121 ACO 4038 ClG 23 47 31.1 -28 12 10           ~ 309 3
122 ACO 2666 ClG 23 50 56.2 +27 08 41           ~ 200 0
123 ACO 4049 ClG 23 52 44.26 -28 34 13.6           ~ 28 1
124 ACO 4059 ClG 23 56 40.7 -34 40 18           ~ 346 1
125 ACO 5358 ClG ~ ~           ~ 2 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.04.09-15:32:36

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