2001ApJ...549..441S


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.01.28CET09:41:45

2001ApJ...549..441S - Astrophys. J., 549, 441-451 (2001/March-1)

Chandra observations of variable embedded X-ray sources in Orion. I. Resolving the Orion Trapezium.

SCHULZ N.S., CANIZARES C., HUENEMOERDER D., KASTNER J.H., TAYLOR S.C. and BERGSTROEM E.J.

Abstract (from CDS):

We used the High-Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer on board the Chandra X-Ray Observatory to perform two observations, separated by 3 weeks, of the Orion Trapezium region. The zeroth-order images on the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer provide spatial resolution of 0".5 and moderate energy resolution. Within a 160''x140'' region around the Orion Trapezium, we resolve 111 X-ray sources with luminosities between 7x1028 and 2x1032 ergs.s–1. We do not detect any diffuse emission. All but six sources are identified. From spectral fits of the three brightest stars in the Trapezium, we determine the line-of-sight column density to be NH=(1.93±0.29)x1021 cm–2. Many sources appear much more heavily absorbed, with NH in the range of 1022-1023 cm–2. A large fraction of sources also show excursions in luminosity by more than a factor 5 on timescales greater than 50 ks; many are detected only in one of the observations. The main objective of this paper is to study the Orion Trapezium and its close vicinity. All five Trapezium stars are bright in X-rays, with θ1 Ori C accounting for about 60% of the total luminosity of the Trapezium. The CCD spectra of the three very early-type members can be fitted with a two-temperature thermal spectrum with a soft component of kT∼0.8 keV and a hard component of kT∼2-3 keV. θ1 Ori B is an order of magnitude fainter than θ1 Ori E and shows only a hard spectrum of kT∼3 keV. θ1 Ori D is another order of magnitude fainter than θ1 Ori B, with only a kT∼0.7 keV component. We discuss these results in the context of stellar wind models. We detect eight additional, mostly variable X-ray sources in the close vicinity of the Trapezium. They are identified with thermal and nonthermal radio sources, as well as infrared and optical stars. Five of these X-ray sources are identified with proplyds, and we argue that the X-ray emission originates from class I, II, and III protostars at the cores of the proplyds.


Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Galaxy: Open Clusters and Associations: Individual: Name: Trapezium - Stars: Early-Type - Stars: Formation - Techniques: Spectroscopic - X-Rays: Stars

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJ/549/441): table1.dat>

Nomenclature: Table 1: [SCH2001] NNN (Nos 1-111).

Errata: erratum vol. 586, p. 1441 (2003)

CDS comments: Table 1: (Nos A-E) are (Nos 1-5). [SCH2001] 7 is misidentified with Parenago 1825. Source #12: connection with [AD95] 3132 ignored in Simbad.

Simbad objects: 132

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Number of rows : 132

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 V* SU Aur Or* 04 55 59.3861369488 +30 34 01.499800471   10.33 9.30 9.17   G2IIIne 544 0
2 NAME Orion Nebula Cluster OpC 05 35.0 -05 29           ~ 2032 1
3 COUP 442 Ir* 05 35 11.7167746182 -05 23 40.409700459     17.87   13.965 M4.5 23 0
4 V* V1228 Ori Or* 05 35 12.2814452451 -05 23 48.023760022   15.361 14.238   11.906 K1 58 0
5 COUP 477 * 05 35 12.3500 -05 22 41.350           ~ 8 0
6 COUP 478 * 05 35 12.390 -05 23 51.70         16.910 ~ 14 0
7 COUP 483 * 05 35 12.57343 -05 23 01.9295     22.73     ~ 23 0
8 V* LV Ori Or* 05 35 12.5987834306 -05 23 44.110059038 14.669 13.863 12.912   11.015 K1V 48 0
9 COUP 510 X 05 35 12.98346 -05 23 54.9487           ~ 12 0
10 COUP 530 X 05 35 13.20854 -05 22 54.7917           ~ 15 0
11 V* V1398 Ori Or* 05 35 13.4532233424 -05 23 40.431321880   15.790 14.937   12.516 M0 41 0
12 COUP 553 * 05 35 13.530 -05 23 30.90   12.9 16.81     M3 22 0
13 2MASS J05351356-0523552 Y*O 05 35 13.56 -05 23 55.3           ~ 34 0
14 Parenago 1823 Em* 05 35 14.0506648456 -05 23 38.471270173     15.078   12.238 K5 41 0
15 [SCH2001] 21 Mas 05 35 14.099 -05 22 36.35           ~ 2 0
16 COUP J053514.0-052222 HH 05 35 14.10856 -05 22 22.6807           ~ 29 0
17 [GD77] A IR 05 35 14.19 -05 22 34.0           ~ 59 0
18 V* V1328 Ori BY* 05 35 14.2773413378 -05 24 24.668229834 16.297 15.025 13.988 13.13 11.665 K7 56 0
19 COUP 614 Y*O 05 35 14.2900 -05 23 04.300           ~ 19 0
20 COUP 624 * 05 35 14.3200 -05 23 08.300     21.70     M: 22 0
21 COUP 621 Y*O 05 35 14.35371 -05 22 32.8820           ~ 105 0
22 [SCH2001] 26 X 05 35 14.36 -05 22 54.0           ~ 1 0
23 Parenago 1843 Y*O 05 35 14.3946416434 -05 23 33.627095373     15.052   12.251 M1 47 0
24 [JGS92] 2 Mas 05 35 14.416 -05 22 36.39           ~ 2 0
25 COUP 639 X 05 35 14.5013870 -05 22 38.696699           ~ 25 0
26 COUP 640 X 05 35 14.54523 -05 23 15.9753           ~ 14 0
27 CXOONC J053514.5-052407 X 05 35 14.588 -05 24 07.97           ~ 5 0
28 COUP 648 * 05 35 14.64 -05 22 33.7   15.891 14.779   12.008 K7 52 0
29 [OW94] 147-302 V* 05 35 14.65920 -05 23 01.8960     19.12   14.898 M0.5-M2.5 43 0
30 COUP 657 * 05 35 14.7000 -05 22 49.400           ~ 16 0
31 [SCB99] 46 * 05 35 14.782 -05 22 29.60           ~ 2 0
32 CXOONC J053514.8-052406 * 05 35 14.820 -05 24 06.82           ~ 6 0
33 COUP 665 * 05 35 14.82 -05 23 16.0         14.631 ~ 18 0
34 COUP 666 Ir* 05 35 14.8228436842 -05 23 46.426139258   12.3     14.271 ~ 24 0
35 COUP 663 Ir* 05 35 14.870 -05 22 31.70   12.8 17.57   14.452 K-M: 32 1
36 COUP 662 * 05 35 14.8982780 -05 22 25.410079           ~ 35 0
37 V* V1330 Ori BY* 05 35 14.9157450029 -05 22 39.209342428   15.040 13.940   11.632 K4 68 0
38 MLLA 228A * 05 35 14.930 -05 24 12.90           M5.5 13 0
39 COUP 672 * 05 35 14.95 -05 23 39.3   15.249 14.247   12.055 ~ 33 0
40 MLLA 606 Y*O 05 35 15.030 -05 22 31.15         15.161 M6 29 0
41 COUP J053515.1-052346 * 05 35 15.16 -05 23 46.5           M0-M1 25 0
42 COUP 682 * 05 35 15.1758 -05 22 54.527   15.141 14.075   11.684 ~ 37 0
43 V* V1278 Ori Or* 05 35 15.2037732887 -05 22 24.068107048   16.124 15.222   12.935 K7 40 0
44 Brun 580 * 05 35 15.268 -05 22 56.83 15.256 14.367 13.465   11.383 G6-G8 47 1
45 MLLA 394 * 05 35 15.29340 -05 23 23.1241           ~ 21 0
46 [LKP2003] 14 X 05 35 15.34 -05 22 15.5           ~ 2 0
47 COUP 700 * 05 35 15.37 -05 23 33.4         13.972 M2e 23 0
48 JW 472 Y*O 05 35 15.3786876744 -05 22 25.382198136     16.592   14.030 M1.5 33 0
49 COUP 708 * 05 35 15.43 -05 23 45.5         13.084 ~ 34 0
50 Parenago 1861 Y*O 05 35 15.4842897287 -05 22 48.580844541     16.180   12.874 M2 40 1
51 Brun 590 Y*O 05 35 15.6158812605 -05 24 03.057251103     14.718   12.305 K9 47 0
52 [LKP2003] 2 X 05 35 15.63 -05 22 56.4           ~ 2 0
53 V* V348 Ori Or* 05 35 15.6353012097 -05 22 56.457494793   14.352 13.274   10.987 G8-K1 56 0
54 COUP 725 * 05 35 15.6793 -05 23 39.011           ~ 19 1
55 Parenago 1866 Y*O 05 35 15.72550 -05 23 22.4347   16.0 14.5   12.446 ~ 49 1
56 COUP 734 Ir* 05 35 15.760 -05 23 38.38         15.184 ~ 19 0
57 * tet01 Ori E SB* 05 35 15.7719090349 -05 23 09.890008011           G2IV 88 0
58 JW 489 Y*O 05 35 15.7947 -05 23 26.664   12.3       ~ 62 0
59 TCC 43 * 05 35 15.80180 -05 23 11.8906           ~ 18 0
60 * tet01 Ori A Ae* 05 35 15.8252169327 -05 23 14.332546552 5.87 6.75 6.73 6.42 6.21 B0V 462 1
61 Parenago 1867 Y*O 05 35 15.83370 -05 23 22.4207     13.645   12.102 Ke 77 1
62 COUP 742 * 05 35 15.8380240259 -05 22 45.853745273     16.466   13.432 M3e 35 0
63 TCC 47 Y*O 05 35 15.85 -05 23 25.5           ~ 49 0
64 JW 494 * 05 35 15.873900 -05 23 01.89992   12.3 15.9   13.6 K7 30 0
65 [H97b] 9119 Y*O 05 35 15.87432 -05 22 32.8332     20.60   15.697 M2.5:e 27 0
66 V* V2279 Ori Or* 05 35 15.9483540546 -05 23 49.949661400 14.794 13.648 12.730   10.537 M0.5+M2 90 0
67 V* AC Ori Or* 05 35 16.0396400 -05 23 53.063091     14.875   12.337 F5e 59 1
68 TCC 54 Rad 05 35 16.06922 -05 23 24.3483           ~ 59 0
69 TCC 57 Y*O 05 35 16.07 -05 23 27.8           ~ 43 0
70 [BSD98] 2 Y*O 05 35 16.076 -05 23 24.73           ~ 4 0
71 TCC 55 Y*O 05 35 16.0785 -05 22 54.123           M3 21 0
72 TCC 58 * 05 35 16.09280 -05 23 23.0106           ~ 29 1
73 COUP 770 Ir* 05 35 16.0936452679 -05 24 11.475411512   12.9 14.57 14.31 14.283 M2 27 0
74 TCC 59 Y*O 05 35 16.10855 -05 23 14.2457           ~ 27 0
75 LV 3 Y*O 05 35 16.2830 -05 23 16.512   11.4     12.672 K3 68 0
76 COUP 801 * 05 35 16.3761310695 -05 24 03.352207848     14.06     K4-K7 35 0
77 * tet01 Ori C ** 05 35 16.4664092288 -05 23 22.897102710 4.20 5.15 5.13 4.91 4.73 O7Vp 1290 1
78 MLLA 588B Y*O 05 35 16.4800 -05 22 35.160           ~ 19 1
79 COUP 808 * 05 35 16.4900 -05 22 56.500           ~ 13 0
80 NAME Trapezium Cluster As* 05 35 16.5 -05 23 14           ~ 1491 1
81 TCC 70 Y*O 05 35 16.61480 -05 23 16.0836           ~ 45 0
82 * tet01 Ori G Y*O 05 35 16.723 -05 23 16.56 14.712 13.704 13.678   13.081 K0.7 99 1
83 2MASS J05351671-0522309 Y*O 05 35 16.7384489491 -05 22 31.242377040     18.10   14.820 M4 37 0
84 TCC 74 Y*O 05 35 16.76210 -05 23 28.0209           ~ 41 0
85 V* V1279 Ori Or* 05 35 16.7648570441 -05 24 04.281291528   14.815 13.722   11.441 M0.9e 51 0
86 LV 1 ISM 05 35 16.8 -05 23 26           ~ 26 0
87 [OW94] 168-326 Y*O 05 35 16.85 -05 23 26.2           ~ 40 0
88 Parenago 1886 Em* 05 35 16.8916564433 -05 22 22.442365401   16.263 15.023   12.348 M0 35 0
89 COUP 856 Y*O 05 35 17.04 -05 23 39.7   12.9     13.224 K8e 50 1
90 V* V2299 Ori Or* 05 35 17.0670026413 -05 23 34.055297452 14.962 14.224 13.322   11.118 K1 70 0
91 * tet01 Ori D Y*O 05 35 17.2574309230 -05 23 16.567215876 6.08 6.79 6.70 6.40 6.20 B1.5Vp 308 0
92 M 42 HII 05 35 17.3 -05 23 28           ~ 3766 0
93 2MASS J05351738-0524001 Y*O 05 35 17.3874136212 -05 24 00.261193418   12.6 18.79   16.326 K2-K7 28 0
94 COUP 885 * 05 35 17.45 -05 23 21.0     15.82   12.967 K7-K8e 29 0
95 V* V1510 Ori Or* 05 35 17.5577527626 -05 22 56.723187707   15.991 15.003   12.239 K7+M1 45 0
96 COUP 912 Ir* 05 35 17.770 -05 23 42.60         16.430 M3 22 0
97 [OW94] 178-316S * 05 35 17.81 -05 23 15.7           ~ 2 0
98 Parenago 1912 * 05 35 17.8220523557 -05 23 15.596885220   16.210 15.286   12.706 M0 39 0
99 COUP 921 V* 05 35 17.870 -05 23 03.10     15.994   13.652 K8 31 0
100 V* MT Ori Or* 05 35 17.9484704886 -05 22 45.471640008 14.524 13.208 12.229   10.063 K2 96 0
101 COUP 934 Ir* 05 35 17.970 -05 23 35.50     20.93   14.964 M0e 24 0
102 V* V2321 Ori Or* 05 35 18.03960 -05 24 02.9304   17.144 17.922   15.061 M4-M5.5e 30 0
103 [SCH2001] 88 X 05 35 18.05 -05 24 01.1           ~ 1 0
104 [FRM2016] 385 * 05 35 18.06198 -05 22 18.2167           ~ 3 0
105 V* V2325 Ori Or* 05 35 18.2067193250 -05 23 35.905759805 16.366 14.920 13.923   11.431 M0 47 0
106 [OW94] 183-405 Y*O 05 35 18.3338901168 -05 24 04.850400420         14.649 ~ 57 0
107 V* V1229 Ori Or* 05 35 18.3727420 -05 22 37.429392 15.941 14.257 13.251   10.987 K0 81 0
108 V* V1336 Ori Or* 05 35 18.4709744708 -05 24 07.013877020         13.589 M3e 57 0
109 V* AF Ori Or* 05 35 18.6662798791 -05 23 13.945021737         12.526 K2-K5e 50 0
110 V* V2336 Ori Or* 05 35 18.7046195630 -05 22 56.847269340     15.466   12.640 K5+M2 40 0
111 V* V1337 Ori Or* 05 35 19.0673080853 -05 23 49.671315220   13.1 16.108   13.852 G8-K2 41 0
112 Parenago 1928 Y*O 05 35 19.1216185726 -05 23 27.086593775 16.352 16.391 16.138   13.743 K8 40 0
113 COUP 1023 Em* 05 35 19.2128226301 -05 22 50.684661096     17.099   13.882 K5 39 0
114 [SCH2001] 98 X 05 35 19.34 -05 23 40.6           ~ 1 0
115 V* V2354 Ori Or* 05 35 19.6137722672 -05 23 57.343258422   17.280 16.478   14.205 K8 34 0
116 2MASS J05351981-0522216 Y*O 05 35 19.82 -05 22 21.6 16.740 17.342 16.955   14.641 M2.1e 37 0
117 COUP 1063 * 05 35 19.980 -05 22 32.80         17.863 ~ 17 0
118 [OW94] 202-309 Y*O 05 35 20.17632 -05 23 08.5092         15.023 M2 30 0
119 ** PRS 22B * 05 35 20.430 -05 23 29.70     19.09   14.62 ~ 12 0
120 2MASS J05352054-0524208 Y*O 05 35 20.5433911450 -05 24 20.922540650   12.9 15.75 13.88 14.788 ~ 36 0
121 COUP 1111 * 05 35 20.6767235648 -05 23 53.236510430   12.9 18.2   13.810 M4-M6e 29 0
122 [OW94] 209-322 * 05 35 20.9153100998 -05 23 21.831043194     19.40   15.088 M0 24 0
123 COUP 1131 * 05 35 20.98 -05 23 54.7     21.02   15.410 ~ 17 0
124 V* V1399 Ori Or* 05 35 21.0492702938 -05 23 48.989001884 14.154 13.231 12.376   10.605 G8 58 0
125 V* V2375 Ori Or* 05 35 21.2465977314 -05 22 59.522678791   19.068 18.244   14.850 M3 38 0
126 V* V1524 Ori Or* 05 35 21.35640 -05 23 45.4992   17.621 16.471   13.850 M1+M3.5 37 0
127 V* V1524 Ori A * 05 35 21.3656261424 -05 23 45.441405876           ~ 39 0
128 [SCH2001] 110 * 05 35 21.45 -05 24 14.1           ~ 1 0
129 NAME Ori A MoC 05 38 -07.1           ~ 2721 0
130 LDN 1641 MoC 05 39.0 -07 00           ~ 432 0
131 YLW 15 Y*O 16 27 26.93640 -24 40 50.8224           ~ 242 1
132 NAME Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud SFR 16 28 06 -24 32.5           ~ 3115 1

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2021.01.28-09:41:45

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