Astrophys. J., 564, 853-876 (2002/January-2)
Heating and ionization of X-winds.
SHANG H., GLASSGOLD A.E., SHU F.H. and LIZANO S.
Abstract (from CDS):
In order to compare the X-wind with observations, one needs to be able to calculate its thermal and ionization properties. We formulate the physical basis for the streamline-by-streamline integration of the ionization and heat equations of the steady X-wind. In addition to the well-known processes associated with the interaction of stellar and accretion funnel hot spot radiation with the wind, we include X-ray heating and ionization, mechanical heating, and a revised calculation of ambipolar diffusion heating. The mechanical heating arises from fluctuations produced by star-disk interactions of the time-dependent X-wind that are carried by the wind to large distances where they are dissipated in shocks, MHD waves, and turbulent cascades. We model the time-averaged heating by the scale-free volumetric heating rate, Γmech=αρv3s–1, where ρ and v are the local mass density and wind speed, respectively, s is the distance from the origin, and α is a phenomenological constant. When we consider a partially revealed but active young stellar object, we find that choosing α∼10–3 in our numerical calculations produces temperatures and electron fractions that are high enough for the X-wind jet to radiate in the optical forbidden lines at the level and on the spatial scales that are observed. We also discuss a variety of applications of our thermal-chemical calculations that can lead to further observational checks of X-wind theory.
Accretion, Accretion Disks - Stars: Formation - Stars: Winds, Outflows - X-Rays: Stars
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