SIMBAD references

2002MNRAS.331..521C - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 331, 521-536 (2002/April-1)

Modelling methanol and hydroxyl masers in star-forming regions.

CRAGG D.M., SOBOLEV A.M. and GODFREY P.D.

Abstract (from CDS):

Class II methanol masers are found in close association with OH main-line masers in many star-forming regions, where both are believed to flag the early stages in the evolution of a massive star. We have studied the formation of masers in methanol and OH under identical model conditions for the first time. Infrared pumping by radiation from warm dust at temperatures >100K can account for the known maser lines in both molecules, many of which develop simultaneously under a range of conditions. The masers form most readily in cooler gas (<100K) of moderately high density (105-108 cm–3), although higher gas temperatures and/or lower densities are also compatible with maser action. The agreement between the current model (developed for methanol) and the established OH maser trends is very encouraging, and we anticipate that further tuning of the model will further improve such agreement.

We find the gas-phase molecular abundance to be the key determinant of observable maser activity for both molecules. Sources exhibiting both 6668-MHz methanol and 1665-MHz OH masers have a typical flux density ratio of 16; our model suggests that this may be a consequence of maser saturation. We find that the 1665-MHz maser approaches the saturated limit for OH abundances >10–7.3, while the 6668-MHz maser requires a greater methanol abundance >10–6. OH-favoured sources are likely to be less abundant in methanol, while methanol-favoured sources may be less abundant in OH or experiencing warm (>125K), dense (∼107 cm–3) conditions. These abundance requirements offer the possibility of tying the appearance of masers to the age of the new-born star via models of gas-phase chemical evolution following the evaporation of icy grain mantles.


Abstract Copyright: 2002 Blackwell Science Ltd

Journal keyword(s): masers - Hii regions - ISM: molecules - radio lines: ISM

Simbad objects: 3

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