Astron. J., 125, 293-321 (2003/January-0)
Spectroscopic binaries, jitter, and rotation in field metal-poor red giant and red horizontal-branch stars.
CARNEY B.W., LATHAM D.W., STEFANIK R.P., LAIRD J.B. and MORSE J.A.
Abstract (from CDS):
We summarize 2007 radial velocity measurements of 91 metal-poor field red giants. Excluding binary systems with orbital solutions, our coverage averages 13.7 yr per star, with a maximum of 18.0 yr. We report four significant findings. (1) Sixteen stars are found to be spectroscopic binaries, and we present orbital solutions for 14 of them. The spectroscopic binary frequency of the metal-poor red giants, with [Fe/H]≤-1.4, for periods less than 6000 days, is 16%±4%, which is not significantly different from that of comparable-metallicity field dwarfs, 17%±2%. The two CH stars in our program, BD -1°2582 and HD 135148, are both spectroscopic binaries. (2) Velocity jitter is present among about 40% of the giants with MV≤-1.4. The two best-observed cases, HD 3008 and BD +22°2411, show pseudoperiodicities of 172 and 186 days, longer than any known long-period variable in metal-poor globular clusters. Photometric variability seen in HD 3008 and three other stars showing velocity jitter hints that starspots are the cause. However, the phasing of the velocity data with the photometry data from Hipparcos is not consistent with a simple starspot model for HD 3008. We argue against orbital motion effects and radial pulsation, so rotational modulation remains the best explanation. The implied rotational velocities for HD 3008 and BD +22°2411, both with MV≤-1.4 and R~50 R☉, exceed 12 km.s–1. (3) Including HD 3008 and BD +22°2411, we have found signs of significant excess line broadening in eight of the 17 red giants with MV≤-1.4, which we interpret as rotation. In three cases, BD +30°2034, CD -37°14010, and HD 218732, the rotation is probably induced by tidal locking between axial rotation and the observed orbital motion with a stellar companion. But this cannot explain the other five stars in our sample that display signs of significant rotation. This high frequency of elevated rotational velocities does not appear to be caused by stellar mass transfer or mergers: there are too few main-sequence binaries with short enough periods. We also note that the lack of any noticeable increase in mean rotation at the magnitude level of the red giant branch luminosity function ``bump'' argues against the rapid rotation's being caused by the transport of internal angular momentum to the surface. Capture of a planetary-mass companion as a red giant expands in radius could explain the high rotational velocities. (4) We also find significant rotation in at least six of the roughly 15 (40%) red horizontal-branch stars in our survey. It is likely that the enhanced rotation seen among a significant fraction of both blue and red horizontal-branch stars arose when these stars were luminous red giants. Rapid rotation alone therefore appears insufficient cause to populate the blue side of the horizontal branch. While the largest projected rotational velocities seen among field blue and red horizontal-branch stars are consistent with their different sizes, neither are consistent with the large values we find for the largest red giants. This suggests that some form of angular momentum loss (and possibly mass loss) has been at work. Also puzzling is the apparent absence of rotation seen in field RR Lyrae variables. Angular momentum transfer and conservation in evolved metal-poor field stars thus pose many interesting questions for the evolution of low-mass stars.
Stars: Binaries: Spectroscopic - Galaxy: Halo - Stars: Planetary Systems: Formation - Stars: Population II - Stars: Rotation
Par. 9.3.2, star IV-101 in M 3 = Cl* NGC 5272 S I- IV-101
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