2003ApJ...599.1049W


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.12.09CET16:18:17

2003ApJ...599.1049W - Astrophys. J., 599, 1049-1066 (2003/December-3)

The mass function of supergiant molecular complexes and implications for forming young massive star clusters in the Antennae (NGC 4038/4039).

WILSON C.D., SCOVILLE N., MADDEN S.C. and CHARMANDARIS V.

Abstract (from CDS):

We have used previously published observations of the CO emission from the Antennae (NGC 4038/4039) to study the detailed properties of the supergiant molecular complexes with the goal of understanding the formation of young massive star clusters. Over a mass range from 5x106 to 9x108 M the molecular complexes follow a power-law mass function with a slope of -1.4±0.1, which is very similar to the slope seen at lower masses in molecular clouds and cloud cores in the Galaxy. Compared with the spiral galaxy M51, which has a similar surface density and total mass of molecular gas, the Antennae contain clouds that are an order of magnitude more massive. Many of the youngest star clusters lie in the gas-rich overlap region, where extinctions as high as AV∼100 mag imply that the clusters must lie in front of the gas. Young clusters found in other regions of the galaxies can be as far as 2 kpc from the nearest massive cloud, which suggests that either young clusters can form occasionally in clouds less massive than 5x106 Mor that these young clusters have already destroyed their parent molecular clouds. Combining data on the young clusters, thermal and nonthermal radio sources, and the molecular gas suggests that young massive clusters could have formed at a constant rate in the Antennae over the last 160 Myr and that sufficient gas exists to sustain this cluster formation rate well into the future. However, this conclusion requires that a very high fraction of the massive clusters that form initially in the Antennae do not survive as long as 100 Myr. Furthermore, if most young massive clusters do survive for long periods, the Antennae must be experiencing a relatively short burst of cluster formation to prevent the final merger remnant from exceeding the observed specific frequency of star clusters in elliptical galaxies by a wide margin. Finally, we compare our data with two models for massive star cluster formation and conclude that the model in which young massive star clusters form from dense cores within the observed supergiant molecular complexes is most consistent with our current understanding of this merging system.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Galaxies: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 4038 - Galaxies: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 4039 - Galaxies: ISM - ISM: Molecules - Radio Lines: Galaxies - Stars: Formation

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJ/599/1049): table2.dat>

Nomenclature: Text: [WSM2000] SGMC N (No. 7) added. Table 2: [WSM2003] NN (Nos 1-86).

Simbad objects: 117

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Number of rows : 117

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 M 77 GiP 02 42 40.771 -00 00 47.84 9.70 9.61 8.87 10.1 9.9 ~ 3998 2
2 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 14379 1
3 NAME 30 Dor Nebula SFR 05 38 36.0 -69 05 11           ~ 1025 2
4 RMC 136 Cl* 05 38 42.396 -69 06 03.36   9.63 9.50     ~ 1680 2
5 NAME Flame Nebula HII 05 41 42.7 -01 54 44           ~ 691 1
6 NAME Ori B MoC 05 41 43.0 -01 54 44           ~ 1133 0
7 M 82 IG 09 55 52.430 +69 40 46.93 9.61 9.30 8.41     ~ 5236 6
8 NAME NGC 3690 West GiP 11 28 30.69 +58 33 33.4   11.8       ~ 604 4
9 UGC 6472 C G 11 28 30.70 +58 33 48.4           ~ 351 0
10 NGC 3690 IG 11 28 31.326 +58 33 41.80   13.19 12.86     ~ 870 4
11 NAME NGC 3690 East AGN 11 28 33.07 +58 33 54.2   11.8       ~ 609 4
12 NGC 3921 IG 11 51 06.8746094191 +55 04 43.392337063   13.4 12.64     ~ 233 0
13 [WSM2003] 71 MoC 12 01 50.5 -18 52 24           ~ 1 0
14 [WSM2003] 61 MoC 12 01 50.5 -18 52 06           ~ 1 0
15 [WSM2003] 39 MoC 12 01 50.7 -18 51 57           ~ 1 0
16 [WSM2003] 36 MoC 12 01 50.7 -18 51 54           ~ 1 0
17 [WSM2003] 57 MoC 12 01 50.8 -18 52 06           ~ 1 0
18 [WSM2003] 62 MoC 12 01 50.9 -18 52 07           ~ 1 0
19 [WSM2003] 41 MoC 12 01 51.1 -18 51 52           ~ 1 0
20 [WSM2003] 76 MoC 12 01 51.3 -18 52 31           ~ 1 0
21 [WSM2003] 50 MoC 12 01 51.8 -18 51 58           ~ 1 0
22 [WSM2003] 46 MoC 12 01 51.8 -18 51 41           ~ 1 0
23 [WSM2003] 43 MoC 12 01 51.8 -18 51 38           ~ 1 0
24 [WSM2003] 45 MoC 12 01 51.9 -18 52 22           ~ 1 0
25 [WSM2003] 78 MoC 12 01 52.0 -18 52 20           ~ 1 0
26 [WSM2003] 64 MoC 12 01 52.1 -18 52 08           ~ 1 0
27 [WSM2003] 82 MoC 12 01 52.3 -18 51 57           ~ 1 0
28 [WSM2003] 85 MoC 12 01 52.3 -18 51 54           ~ 1 0
29 [WSM2003] 44 MoC 12 01 52.4 -18 53 04           ~ 1 0
30 [WSM2003] 53 MoC 12 01 53.0 -18 52 32           ~ 1 0
31 [WSM2003] 1 MoC 12 01 53.0 -18 52 02           ~ 1 0
32 [WSM2003] 3 MoC 12 01 53.0 -18 52 01           ~ 1 0
33 [WSM2003] 2 MoC 12 01 53.0 -18 52 01           ~ 1 0
34 [WSM2003] 21 MoC 12 01 53.0 -18 52 00           ~ 1 0
35 NGC 4038 GiP 12 01 53.002 -18 52 03.32   10.91   9.74 11.0 ~ 1265 1
36 [WSM2003] 20 MoC 12 01 53.1 -18 53 15           ~ 1 0
37 [WSM2003] 86 MoC 12 01 53.1 -18 53 15           ~ 1 0
38 [WSM2003] 22 MoC 12 01 53.1 -18 53 14           ~ 1 0
39 [WSM2003] 49 MoC 12 01 53.1 -18 52 05           ~ 1 0
40 NAME Antennae IG 12 01 53.170 -18 52 37.92           ~ 1537 0
41 [WSM2003] 58 MoC 12 01 53.2 -18 53 13           ~ 1 0
42 [WSM2003] 35 MoC 12 01 53.2 -18 52 33           ~ 1 0
43 [WSM2003] 56 MoC 12 01 53.3 -18 52 16           ~ 1 0
44 [WSM2003] 80 MoC 12 01 53.4 -18 53 05           ~ 1 0
45 [WSM2003] 42 MoC 12 01 53.5 -18 52 28           ~ 1 0
46 [WSM2003] 79 MoC 12 01 53.7 -18 53 08           ~ 1 0
47 [WSM2003] 65 MoC 12 01 53.7 -18 53 07           ~ 1 0
48 [WSM2003] 48 MoC 12 01 53.7 -18 52 12           ~ 1 0
49 NGC 4039 GiP 12 01 53.8 -18 53 06   11.08   9.77   ~ 1124 1
50 [WSM2003] 81 MoC 12 01 53.8 -18 52 04           ~ 1 0
51 [WSM2003] 32 MoC 12 01 54.2 -18 53 08           ~ 1 0
52 [WSM2003] 67 MoC 12 01 54.4 -18 52 44           ~ 3 0
53 [WSM2003] 75 MoC 12 01 54.4 -18 52 30           ~ 1 0
54 [WSM2003] 51 MoC 12 01 54.4 -18 52 29           ~ 1 0
55 [WSM2003] 74 MoC 12 01 54.5 -18 52 44           ~ 3 0
56 [WSM2003] 68 MoC 12 01 54.5 -18 52 28           ~ 1 0
57 [WSM2003] 12 MoC 12 01 54.6 -18 53 02           ~ 1 0
58 [WSM2003] 77 MoC 12 01 54.7 -18 52 56           ~ 1 0
59 [WSM2003] 73 MoC 12 01 54.7 -18 52 55           ~ 1 0
60 [WSM2003] 70 MoC 12 01 54.7 -18 52 53           ~ 1 0
61 [WSM2003] 47 MoC 12 01 54.7 -18 52 52           ~ 1 0
62 [WSM2003] 37 MoC 12 01 54.7 -18 52 52           ~ 1 0
63 [WSM2003] 11 MoC 12 01 54.7 -18 52 50           ~ 1 0
64 [WSM2003] 27 MoC 12 01 54.7 -18 52 49           ~ 1 0
65 [WSM2003] 10 MoC 12 01 54.7 -18 52 44           ~ 1 0
66 [WSM2003] 19 MoC 12 01 54.7 -18 52 34           ~ 1 0
67 [WSM2003] 66 MoC 12 01 54.8 -18 52 59           ~ 1 0
68 [WSM2003] 14 MoC 12 01 54.8 -18 52 54           ~ 1 0
69 [WSM2003] 59 MoC 12 01 54.8 -18 52 53           ~ 1 0
70 [HV86] 3 PoG 12 01 54.8 -18 52 52           ~ 26 0
71 [WSM2003] 4 MoC 12 01 54.8 -18 52 52           ~ 1 0
72 [WSM2003] 25 MoC 12 01 54.8 -18 52 49           ~ 1 0
73 [BCE2005] 157 Cl* 12 01 54.89 -18 53 04.9     23.5     ~ 21 0
74 [WSM2003] 7 MoC 12 01 54.9 -18 53 06           ~ 1 0
75 [BCE2005] 136 PoG 12 01 54.9 -18 53 04           ~ 35 0
76 [WSM2003] 13 MoC 12 01 54.9 -18 53 03           ~ 1 0
77 [WSM2000] SGMC 4 PoG 12 01 54.9 -18 53 02           ~ 17 0
78 [WSM2000] SGMC 5 PoG 12 01 54.9 -18 53 02           ~ 16 0
79 [WSM2003] 9 MoC 12 01 54.9 -18 53 01           ~ 1 0
80 [WSM2003] 15 MoC 12 01 54.9 -18 53 01           ~ 1 0
81 [WSM2003] 63 MoC 12 01 54.9 -18 52 55           ~ 1 0
82 [WSM2003] 54 MoC 12 01 54.9 -18 52 55           ~ 1 0
83 [WSM2003] 5 MoC 12 01 54.9 -18 52 52           ~ 1 0
84 [WSM2003] 8 MoC 12 01 55.0 -18 53 01           ~ 1 0
85 [WSM2003] 72 MoC 12 01 55.1 -18 53 10           ~ 1 0
86 [WSM2003] 40 MoC 12 01 55.1 -18 52 54           ~ 1 0
87 [WSM2003] 16 MoC 12 01 55.1 -18 52 41           ~ 3 0
88 [WSM2003] 17 MoC 12 01 55.1 -18 52 40           ~ 3 0
89 [WSM2003] 18 MoC 12 01 55.1 -18 52 38           ~ 3 0
90 [WSM2003] 55 MoC 12 01 55.1 -18 52 29           ~ 1 0
91 [WSM2003] 52 MoC 12 01 55.1 -18 52 26           ~ 1 0
92 [WSM2003] 84 MoC 12 01 55.3 -18 52 33           ~ 1 0
93 [WSM2003] 34 MoC 12 01 55.4 -18 52 58           ~ 1 0
94 [WSM2003] 33 MoC 12 01 55.4 -18 52 54           ~ 1 0
95 [WSM2003] 26 MoC 12 01 55.4 -18 52 49           ~ 1 0
96 [WSM2003] 6 MoC 12 01 55.4 -18 52 49           ~ 1 0
97 [WSM2003] 29 MoC 12 01 55.4 -18 52 48           ~ 1 0
98 [WSM2003] 31 MoC 12 01 55.4 -18 52 48           ~ 1 0
99 [WSM2003] 24 MoC 12 01 55.4 -18 52 48           ~ 1 0
100 [WSM2003] 23 MoC 12 01 55.4 -18 52 47           ~ 1 0
101 [WSM2003] 83 MoC 12 01 55.4 -18 52 47           ~ 1 0
102 [WSM2003] 30 MoC 12 01 55.4 -18 52 47           ~ 1 0
103 RFD C PoG 12 01 55.5 -18 52 48           ~ 32 0
104 [WSM2003] 28 MoC 12 01 55.5 -18 52 46           ~ 1 0
105 [WSM2003] 38 MoC 12 01 55.8 -18 52 58           ~ 1 0
106 [WSM2003] 69 MoC 12 01 55.9 -18 53 04           ~ 1 0
107 [WSM2003] 60 MoC 12 01 55.9 -18 52 25           ~ 1 0
108 M 100 AGN 12 22 54.9318850854 +15 49 20.294302163 10.04 10.05 9.35     ~ 1620 2
109 NGC 4414 GiG 12 26 27.089 +31 13 24.76 11.12 10.96 10.12     ~ 507 2
110 3C 273 BLL 12 29 06.6996828061 +02 03 08.598846466   13.05 14.830 14.11   ~ 5252 1
111 3C 279 QSO 12 56 11.1664521013 -05 47 21.531840471   18.01 17.75 15.87   ~ 2643 2
112 M 63 LIN 13 15 49.2738527699 +42 01 45.726078017   9.34 8.59 8.35   ~ 1025 2
113 M 51 GiP 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 3696 4
114 M 83 SBG 13 37 00.919 -29 51 56.74 8.85 8.11 7.52 7.21   ~ 2168 2
115 IC 4553 SyG 15 34 57.22396 +23 30 11.6084   14.76 13.88     ~ 2629 4
116 NAME Ophiuchus Molecular Cloud SFR 16 28 06 -24 32.5           ~ 2943 0
117 NGC 7252 IG 22 20 44.7751096408 -24 40 41.905677809 12.26 12.46 12.06 11.57   ~ 657 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2019.12.09-16:18:17

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