SIMBAD references

2003MNRAS.340..417C - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 340, 417-446 (2003/April-1)

Ionized haloes in planetary nebulae: new discoveries, literature compilation and basic statistical properties.


Abstract (from CDS):

We present a comprehensive observational study of haloes around planetary nebulae (PNe). Deep Hα+[NII] and/or [OIII] narrow-band images have been obtained for 35 PNe, and faint extended haloes have been newly discovered in the following 10 objects: Cn 1-5, IC 2165, IC 2553, NGC 2792, NGC 2867, NGC 3918, NGC 5979, NGC 6578, PB 4, and possibly IC 1747. New deep images have also been obtained of other known or suspected haloes, including the huge extended emission around NGC 3242 and Sh 2-200. In addition, the literature was searched, and together with the new observations an improved data base containing some 50 PN haloes has been compiled.

The halo sample is illustrated in an image atlas contained in this paper, and the original images are made available for use by the scientific community at∼rcorradi/HALOES/.

The haloes have been classified following the predictions of modern radiation-hydrodynamical simulations that describe the formation and evolution of ionized multiple shells and haloes around PNe. According to the models, the observed haloes have been divided into the following groups: (I) circular or slightly elliptical asymptotic giant branch (AGB) haloes, which contain the signature of the last thermal pulse on the AGB; (II) highly asymmetrical AGB haloes; (III) candidate recombination haloes, i.e. limb-brightened extended shells that are expected to be produced by recombination during the late post-AGB evolution, when the luminosity of the central star drops rapidly by a significant factor; (iv) uncertain cases which deserve further study for a reliable classification; (v) non-detections, i.e. PNe in which no halo is found to a level of ≲10–3 the peak surface brightness of the inner nebulae.

We discuss the properties of the haloes: detection rate, morphology, location of the central stars in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, sizes, surface brightness profiles, and kinematical ages. Among the most notable results, we find that, as predicted by models, ionized AGB haloes are a quite common phenomenon in PNe, having been found in 60 per cent of elliptical PNe for which adequately deep images exist. Another 10 per cent show possible recombination haloes. In addition, using the kinematical ages of the haloes and inner nebulae, we conclude that most of the PNe with observed AGB haloes have left the AGB far from a thermal pulse, at a phase when hydrogen burning is the dominant energy source. We find no significant differences between the AGB haloes of hydrogen-poor and hydrogen-rich central stars.

Abstract Copyright: 2003 RAS

Journal keyword(s): planetary nebulae: general

Simbad objects: 59

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