Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 435, 631-648 (2005/5-4)
The formation and evolution of hydrogen-deficient post-AGB white dwarfs: The emerging chemical profile and the expectations for the PG1159-DB-DQ evolutionary connection.
ALTHAUS L.G., SERENELLI A.M., PANEI J.A., CORSICO A.H., GARCIA-BERRO E. and SCOCCOLA C.G.
Abstract (from CDS):
We explore the formation and evolution of hydrogen-deficient post-AGB white dwarfs. To this end, we compute the complete evolution of an initially 2.7M☉ star from the zero-age main sequence through the thermally pulsing and mass-loss phases to the white dwarf stage. Particular attention is given to the chemical abundance changes during the whole evolution. A time-dependent scheme for the simultaneous treatment of abundance changes caused by nuclear reactions, diffusive overshooting, salt fingers and convection is considered. We employed the double-diffusive mixing-length theory of convection for fluids with composition gradients. The study can therefore be considered as a test of its performance in low-mass stars. Also, time-dependent element diffusion for multicomponent gases is taken into account during the white dwarf evolution. The evolutionary stages corresponding to the last helium thermal pulse on the early white-dwarf cooling branch and the following born-again episode are carefully explored. Relevant aspects for PG1159 stars and DB white dwarf evolution are studied in the framework of these new evolutionary models that take into account the history of the white dwarf progenitor. The scope of the calculations is extended to the domain of the helium-rich, carbon-contaminated DQ white dwarfs with the aim of exploring the plausibility of the evolutionary connection PG1159-DB-DQ. In this regard, the implications for the double-layered chemical structure in pulsating DB white dwarfs is investigated. We examine the consequences of mass-loss episodes during the PG1159 stage for the chemical stratification of the outer layer of DB and DQ white dwarfs.