Astrophys. J., 632, 941-955 (2005/October-3)
Turbulence driven by outflow-blown cavities in the molecular cloud of NGC 1333.
QUILLEN A.C., THORNDIKE S.L., CUNNINGHAM A., FRANK A., GUTERMUTH R.A., BLACKMAN E.G., PIPHER J.L. and RIDGE N.
Abstract (from CDS):
Outflows from young stellar objects (YSOs) have been identified as a possible source of turbulence in molecular clouds. To investigate the relationship between outflows, cloud dynamics, and turbulence, we compare the kinematics of the molecular gas associated with NGC 1333, traced in 13CO (1-0), with the distribution of YSOs within. We find a velocity dispersion of ∼1-1.6 km/s in 13CO that does not significantly vary across the cloud and is uncorrelated with the number of nearby young stellar outflows identified from optical and submillimeter observations. However, from velocity channel maps we identify about 20 depressions in the 13CO intensity of scales ≳0.1-0.2 pc and velocity widths 1-3 km/s. The depressions exhibit limb-brightened rims in both individual velocity channel maps and position-velocity diagrams, suggesting that they are slowly expanding cavities. We interpret these depressions to be remnants of past YSO outflow activity: if these cavities are presently empty, they would fill in on timescales of ∼106 yr. This can exceed the lifetime of a YSO outflow phase or the transit time of the central star through the cavity, explaining the absence of any clear correlation between the cavities and YSO outflows. We find that the momentum and energy deposition associated with the expansion of the cavities is sufficient to power the turbulence in the cloud. In this way we conclude that the cavities are an important intermediate step between the conversion of YSO outflow energy and momentum into cloud turbulent motions.
ISM: Bubbles - ISM: Clouds - ISM: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 1333 - ISM: Jets and Outflows - ISM: Kinematics and Dynamics - ISM: Molecules
Table1: [QTC2005] CNN (Nos C1-C22).
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