Massive stars and the energy balance of the interstellar medium. II. The 35 M☉Star and a solution to the ``Missing wind problem''.
FREYER T., HENSLER G. and YORKE H.W.
Abstract (from CDS):
We continue our numerical analysis of the morphological and energetic influence of massive stars on their ambient interstellar medium for a 35 M☉star that evolves from the main-sequence through red supergiant and Wolf-Rayet phases, until it ultimately explodes as a supernova. We find that structure formation in the circumstellar gas during the early main-sequence evolution occurs as in the 60 M☉case but is much less pronounced because of the lower mechanical wind luminosity of the star. On the other hand, since the shell-like structure of the H II region is largely preserved, effects that rely on this symmetry become more important. At the end of the stellar lifetime 1% of the energy released as Lyman continuum radiation and stellar wind has been transferred to the circumstellar gas. From this fraction 10% is kinetic energy of bulk motion, 36% is thermal energy, and the remaining 54% is ionization energy of hydrogen. The sweeping up of the slow red supergiant wind by the fast Wolf-Rayet wind produces remarkable morphological structures and emission signatures, which are compared with existing observations of the Wolf-Rayet bubble S308, whose central star has probably evolved in a manner very similar to our model star. Our model reproduces the correct order of magnitude of observed X-ray luminosity, the temperature of the emitting plasma, and the limb brightening of the intensity profile. This is remarkable, because current analytical and numerical models of Wolf-Rayet bubbles fail to consistently explain these features. A key result is that almost the entire X-ray emission in this stage comes from the shell of red supergiant wind swept up by the shocked Wolf-Rayet wind rather than from the shocked Wolf-Rayet wind itself as hitherto assumed and modeled. This offers a possible solution to what is called the ``missing wind problem'' of Wolf-Rayet bubbles.
ISM: H II Regions - Hydrodynamics - ISM: Bubbles - ISM: Individual: Alphanumeric: S308 - ISM: Structure - X-rays: Individual: Alphanumeric: S308