Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 476, 1261-1282 (2007/12-4)
Dust, pulsation, chromospheres and their role in driving mass loss from red giants in Galactic globular clusters.
McDONALD I. and VAN LOON J.T.
Abstract (from CDS):
Mass loss from red giants in old globular clusters affects the horizontal branch (HB) morphology and post-HB stellar evolution including the production of ultraviolet-bright stars, dredge up of nucleosynthesis products and replenishment of the intra-cluster medium. Study of mass loss in globular clusters also allows one to investigate the metallicity dependence of the mass loss from cool, low-mass stars down to very low metallicities. We present an analysis of new VLT/UVES spectra of 47 red giants in the Galactic globular clusters 47 Tuc (NGC 104), NGC 362, ω Cen (NGC 5139), NGC 6388, M 54 (NGC 6715) and M 15 (NGC 7078). The spectra cover the wavelength region 6100-9900 Å at a resolving power of R = 110000. Some of these stars are known to exhibit mid-infrared excess emission indicative of circumstellar dust. Our aim is to detect signatures of mass loss, identify the mechanism(s) responsible for such outflows, and measure the mass-loss rates. We determine for each star its effective temperature, luminosity, radius and escape velocity. We analyse the Hα and near-infrared calcium triplet lines for evidence of outflows, pulsation and chromospheric activity, and present a simple model for estimating mass-loss rates from the Hα line profile. We compare our results with a variety of other, independent methods. We argue that a chromosphere persists in Galactic globular cluster giants and controls the mass-loss rate to late-K/early-M spectral types, where pulsation becomes strong enough to drive shock waves at luminosities above the RGB tip. This transition may be metallicity-dependent. We find mass-loss rates of ∼10–7 to 10–5M☉/yr, largely independent of metallicity.
stars: AGB and post-AGB - stars: circumstellar matter - stars: mass-loss - stars: chromospheres - infrared: stars - Galaxy: globular clusters: general
Table 2: Cl* NGC 362 MV oNN (Nos o1-o10), Cl* NGC 362 MV xNa (Nos x1-x3, x2a-x2c), Cl* NGC 104 MV xN (Nos x1-x9), Cl* NGC 6388 MV oNN (Nos o1-o12), Cl* NGC 6388 MV xN (Nos x1-x6), Cl* NGC 7078 MV xN (Nos x1-x2), Cl* NGC 6715 MV xN (No. x1), Cl* NGC 5139 MV xN (No. x1).
Status at CDS:
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