2007ApJ...668..400B


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.01.22CET21:40:12

2007ApJ...668..400B - Astrophys. J., 668, 400-408 (2007/October-2)

X-ray hardness variations as an internal/external shock diagnostic.

BUTLER N.R. and KOCEVSKI D.

Abstract (from CDS):

The early, highly time-variable X-ray emission immediately following gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) exhibits strong spectral variations that are unlike the temporally smoother emission that dominates after t∼103 s. The ratio of hard-channel (1.3-10.0 keV) to soft-channel (0.3-1.3 keV) counts in the Swift X-ray telescope provides a new measure delineating the end time of this emission. We define TH as the time at which this transition takes place and measure for 59 events a range of transition times that spans 102 to 104 s, on average 5 times longer than the prompt T90 duration observed in the gamma-ray band. It is very likely that the mysterious light-curve plateau phase and the later power-law temporal evolution, both of which typically occur at times greater than TH and hence exhibit very little hardness ratio evolution, are both produced by external shocking of the surrounding medium and not by the internal shocks thought responsible for the earlier emission. We use the apparent lack of spectral evolution to discriminate among proposed models for the plateau phase emission. We favor energy injection scenarios with a roughly linearly increasing input energy versus time for six well-sampled events with nearly flat light curves at t~103-104 s. Also, using the transition time THas the delineation between the GRB and afterglow emission, we calculate that the kinetic energy in the afterglow shock is typically a factor of 10 lower than that released in the GRB. Three very bright events suggest that this presents a missing X-ray flux problem rather than an efficiency problem for the conversion of kinetic energy into the GRB. Lack of hardness variations in these three events may be due to a very highly relativistic outflow or due to a very dense circumburst medium. There are a handful of rare cases of very late time t>104 s hardness evolution, which may point to residual central engine activity at very late time.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Gamma Rays: Bursts - Stars: Supernovae: General - X-Rays: General

Simbad objects: 67

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Number of rows : 67

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 GRB 070110 gB 00 03 39.270 -52 58 27.00 21.8 21.9 21.2     ~ 174 0
2 GRB 050922B gB 00 23 13.400 -05 36 17.80           ~ 65 0
3 GRB 060708 gB 00 31 13.850 -33 45 32.40 19.07 19.79 17.37     ~ 84 0
4 GRB 060719 gB 01 13 43.380 -48 22 55.09           ~ 82 0
5 GRB 060908 gB 02 07 18.360 +00 20 31.20 16.99 18.34 16.85     ~ 177 0
6 GRB 070129 gB 02 28 00.940 +11 41 04.00       21.3   ~ 94 0
7 GRB 060906 gB 02 43 00.900 +30 21 42.12     19.84     ~ 118 0
8 GRB 060312 gB 03 03 05.920 +12 50 02.00           ~ 42 0
9 GRB 061007 gB 03 05 19.510 -50 30 02.50 14.28 14.40 12.95     ~ 272 1
10 SN 2006aj SN* 03 21 39.670 +16 52 02.27 17.96 19.11 17.40     SNIc-BL 841 1
11 GRB 050822 gB 03 24 27.240 -46 01 59.20     20.82     ~ 96 0
12 GRB 060115 gB 03 36 08.400 +17 20 43.00           ~ 148 0
13 GRB 060210 gB 03 50 57.370 +27 01 34.40   20.27       ~ 226 0
14 GRB 060904B gB 03 52 50.520 -00 43 30.61 18.27 19.14 18.37     ~ 166 0
15 GRB 060211A gB 03 53 32.600 +21 29 19.20           ~ 48 0
16 GRB 060211B gB 05 00 17.110 +14 56 57.30           ~ 36 0
17 GRB 050712 gB 05 10 48.100 +64 54 47.60 19.09   17.86     ~ 61 0
18 GRB 060729 gB 06 21 31.850 -62 22 12.69           ~ 254 0
19 GRB 060510A gB 06 23 27.980 -01 09 46.20 18.19   18.45     ~ 47 0
20 GRB 061222B gB 07 01 24.600 -25 51 36.00     19.87     ~ 72 0
21 GRB 061202 gB 07 02 06.190 -74 41 54.91           ~ 63 0
22 SN 2003lw SN* 08 02 30.1 -39 51 03       20.23   SNIc: 510 0
23 GRB 060428A gB 08 14 10.840 -37 10 11.70     19.97     ~ 48 0
24 GRB 060427 gB 08 17 03.910 +62 40 16.50           ~ 45 0
25 GRB 051227 gB 08 20 58.107 +31 55 32.01           ~ 111 0
26 GRB 051016B gB 08 48 27.810 +13 39 20.00 20.45         ~ 123 0
27 GRB 050502B gB 09 30 10.024 +16 59 48.07           ~ 150 0
28 GRB 061121 gB 09 48 54.570 -13 11 42.68 17.19 17.71 17.02     ~ 291 0
29 GRB 070107 gB 10 37 36.350 -53 12 47.51 18.37 18.49 17.44     ~ 42 0
30 GRB 050219A gB 11 05 38.990 -40 41 03.00           ~ 81 0
31 GRB 050714B gB 11 18 47.610 -15 32 48.90           ~ 66 0
32 GRB 050416 gB 12 33 54.600 +21 03 26.69     19.12     ~ 254 1
33 GRB 070208 gB 13 11 32.607 +61 57 54.37 20.79 20.79 19.86     ~ 94 0
34 GRB 060206 gB 13 31 43.420 +35 03 03.60   19.99 17.09     ~ 286 0
35 GRB 050801 gB 13 36 35.000 -21 55 41.00 15.03 15.82 15.46     ~ 143 0
36 GRB 060204B gB 14 07 14.900 +27 40 36.40           ~ 75 0
37 GRB 050730 gB 14 08 17.090 -03 46 18.90   20.32 17.68     ~ 285 0
38 GRB 050717 gB 14 17 24.440 -50 32 00.10           ~ 63 0
39 GRB 060814 gB 14 45 21.480 +20 35 11.80           ~ 188 0
40 GRB 060714 gB 15 11 26.450 -06 33 58.30   20.21 18.54     ~ 167 0
41 GRB 051117A gB 15 13 34.020 +30 52 12.30 18.66 19.81       ~ 62 0
42 GRB 060526 gB 15 31 18.360 +00 17 04.90   18.31 17.16     ~ 237 0
43 GRB 060428B gB 15 41 25.570 +62 01 28.93 20.64 20.62 19.50     ~ 62 0
44 GRB 060418 gB 15 45 42.600 -03 38 20.00 15.73 16.19 14.98     ~ 325 0
45 GRB 060904A gB 15 50 54.560 +44 59 10.51           ~ 68 0
46 GRB 060510B gB 15 56 29.200 +78 34 12.00           ~ 132 0
47 GRB 060502A gB 16 03 42.480 +66 36 02.49     18.65     ~ 118 0
48 GRB 060219 gB 16 07 21.520 +32 18 57.59           ~ 45 0
49 GRB 050724 gB 16 24 44.400 -27 32 27.90     19.70     ~ 389 1
50 GRB 050401 gB 16 31 28.84 +02 11 14.5           ~ 305 0
51 GRB 050721 gB 16 53 44.530 -28 22 51.80     19.63     ~ 58 0
52 GRB 060929 gB 17 32 28.920 +29 50 06.20           ~ 52 0
53 GRB 050814 gB 17 36 45.390 +46 20 21.60           ~ 136 0
54 GRB 060111B gB 19 05 42.480 +70 22 33.60     17.55     ~ 80 1
55 GRB 060105 gB 19 50 00.680 +46 20 55.40           ~ 77 0
56 GRB 050607 gB 20 00 42.790 +09 08 31.50   19.55 18.94     ~ 86 0
57 GRB 050315 gB 20 25 54.100 -42 36 02.19           ~ 194 0
58 GRB 050713A gB 21 22 09.530 +77 04 29.50           ~ 111 0
59 GRB 060614 gB 21 23 32.140 -53 01 36.10 18.89 20.12 19.54     ~ 515 1
60 GRB 060607 gB 21 58 50.400 -22 29 46.70 18.49 16.67 15.09     ~ 262 0
61 GRB 051109A gB 22 01 15.320 +40 49 23.70   20.09 20.14     ~ 151 0
62 GRB 061110A gB 22 25 09.800 -02 15 30.70 21.43         ~ 118 0
63 GRB 060604 gB 22 28 55.010 -10 54 55.80 20.34 20.31       ~ 107 0
64 GRB 050820A gB 22 29 38.110 +19 33 37.10 18.33 19.00 18.47     ~ 341 0
65 GRB 050716 gB 22 34 20.730 +38 41 03.60   21.52 20.32     ~ 68 0
66 GRB 060707 gB 23 48 19.000 -17 54 17.00     19.79     ~ 138 0
67 GRB 061222A gB 23 53 03.419 +46 31 58.60           ~ 137 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.01.22-21:40:12

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