2007MNRAS.379..401E


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.04.14CEST12:34:53

2007MNRAS.379..401E - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 379, 401-417 (2007/August-1)

The SAURON project - IX. A kinematic classification for early-type galaxies.

EMSELLEM E., CAPPELLARI M., KRAJNOVIC D., VAN DE VEN G., BACON R., BUREAU M., DAVIES R.L., DE ZEEUW P.T., FALCON-BARROSO J., KUNTSCHNER H., McDERMID R., PELETIER R.F. and SARZI M.

Abstract (from CDS):

Two-dimensional stellar kinematics of 48 representative elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies obtained with the SAURON integral-field spectrograph reveal that early-type galaxies appear in two broad flavours, depending on whether they exhibit clear large-scale rotation or not. We define a new parameter, which involves luminosity-weighted averages over the full two-dimensional kinematic field as a proxy to quantify the observed projected stellar angular momentum per unit mass. We use it as a basis for a new kinematic classification: early-type galaxies are separated into slow and fast rotators, depending on whether they have λR values within their effective radius Re below or above 0.1, respectively. Slow and fast rotators are shown to be physically distinct classes of galaxies, a result which cannot simply be the consequence of a biased viewing angle. Fast rotators tend to be relatively low-luminosity galaxies with MB≳ -20.5. Slow rotators tend to be brighter and more massive galaxies, but are still spread over a wide range of absolute magnitude. Three slow rotators of our sample, among the most massive ones, are consistent with zero rotation. Remarkably, all other slow rotators (besides the atypical case of NGC 4550) contain a large kpc-scale kinematically decoupled core (KDC). All fast rotators (except one galaxy with well-known irregular shells) show well-aligned photometric and kinemetric axes, and small velocity twists, in contrast with most slow rotators which exhibit significant misalignments and velocity twists. These results are supported by a supplement of 18 additional early-type galaxies observed with SAURON. In a companion paper (Paper X), we also show that fast and slow rotators are distinct classes in terms of their orbital distribution. We suggest that gas is a key ingredient in the formation and evolution of fast rotators, and that the slowest rotators are the extreme evolutionary end point reached deep in gravitational potential wells where dissipationless mergers had a major role in the evolution, and for which most of the baryonic angular momentum was expelled outwards. Detailed numerical simulations in a cosmological context are required to understand how to form large-scale KDCs within slow rotators, and more generally to explain the distribution of λR values within early-type galaxies and the distinction between fast and slow rotators.

Abstract Copyright: 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2007 RAS

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: formation - galaxies: kinematics and dynamics - galaxies: structure

Simbad objects: 55

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Number of rows : 55

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 M 32 IG 00 42 41.825 +40 51 54.61 9.51 9.03 8.08     ~ 2038 2
2 NGC 474 GiP 01 20 06.696 +03 24 54.97 12.75 12.37 11.51 11.42 10.56 ~ 323 1
3 NGC 524 GiP 01 24 47.707 +09 32 19.65   11.5       ~ 431 1
4 NGC 821 G 02 08 21.150 +10 59 41.53   12.210 11.310 10.739 9.744 ~ 545 0
5 NGC 1023 IG 02 40 24.012 +39 03 47.70 10.91 10.35 9.35 7.83   ~ 617 2
6 NGC 2320 GiG 07 05 42.024 +50 34 51.97   13.9       ~ 93 0
7 NGC 2549 G 08 18 58.3495954248 +57 48 11.017861378   12.1       ~ 236 0
8 NGC 2695 GiG 08 54 27.0742562741 -03 04 00.992454007   13.3       ~ 101 0
9 NGC 2685 Sy2 08 55 34.7056265191 +58 44 03.877798862   13.68 12.70     ~ 410 1
10 NGC 2699 GiG 08 55 48.7840157168 -03 07 39.601081073   13.6       ~ 98 0
11 NGC 2768 SyG 09 11 37.504 +60 02 13.95 11.30 10.84 9.87     ~ 471 2
12 NGC 2974 Sy2 09 42 33.267 -03 41 56.82   12.19   10.77   ~ 416 0
13 NGC 3032 AGN 09 52 08.1487752500 +29 14 10.423175735   13.87 13.28     ~ 237 0
14 NGC 3156 GiG 10 12 41.2459118495 +03 07 45.693904357   12.8       ~ 223 0
15 NGC 3377 GiP 10 47 42.400 +13 59 08.30 11.55 11.24 10.38     ~ 735 1
16 M 105 LIN 10 47 49.600 +12 34 53.87   10.56 9.76 9.12 8.18 ~ 1397 0
17 NGC 3384 GiG 10 48 16.897 +12 37 45.48   10.0       ~ 559 1
18 NGC 3414 GiP 10 51 16.242 +27 58 29.88   12.1       ~ 302 0
19 NGC 3489 GiG 11 00 18.5473550222 +13 54 04.215155077 11.46 11.12 10.29     ~ 367 1
20 NGC 3608 LIN 11 16 58.967 +18 08 54.71   11.7       ~ 483 0
21 NGC 4150 GiG 12 10 33.655 +30 24 05.35 12.72 12.44 11.64     ~ 288 2
22 NGC 4168 Sy1 12 12 17.234 +13 12 19.27 12.58 12.11 11.18     ~ 358 2
23 NGC 4261 LIN 12 19 23.2160630 +05 49 29.700024   13.92 12.87     ~ 1141 0
24 NGC 4262 GiG 12 19 30.582 +14 52 39.78 13.00 12.49 11.55     ~ 333 1
25 NGC 4270 GiP 12 19 49.435 +05 27 48.14   13.3       ~ 167 0
26 NGC 4278 LIN 12 20 06.8253868 +29 16 50.713486 11.54 11.09 10.16     ~ 898 2
27 NGC 4365 GiG 12 24 28.228 +07 19 03.07   11.5       ~ 806 0
28 M 84 Sy2 12 25 03.74333 +12 53 13.1393 12.67 12.09 10.49     ~ 1665 2
29 M 85 GiP 12 25 24.053 +18 11 27.89   10.2       ~ 612 0
30 NGC 4387 GiG 12 25 41.6768872639 +12 48 37.809497625 13.42 13.01 12.12   10.87 ~ 374 1
31 M 86 GiG 12 26 11.814 +12 56 45.49 10.32 9.83 8.90   7.50 ~ 1022 1
32 NGC 4458 GiP 12 28 57.532 +13 14 30.90 13.27 12.93 12.07     ~ 392 2
33 NGC 4459 H2G 12 29 00.026 +13 58 42.89   11.6       ~ 502 0
34 M 49 Sy2 12 29 46.798 +08 00 01.48   13.21 12.17     ~ 1989 2
35 NGC 4473 GiG 12 29 48.878 +13 25 45.55 11.60 11.16 10.20     ~ 612 1
36 NGC 4477 Sy2 12 30 02.172 +13 38 11.19 11.98 11.38 10.42     ~ 370 2
37 M 87 BiC 12 30 49.42338230 +12 23 28.0438581 10.16 9.59 8.63   7.49 ~ 6383 3
38 NGC 4526 GiG 12 34 03.029 +07 41 56.90   10.6       ~ 613 1
39 NGC 4546 GiG 12 35 29.506 -03 47 35.62 11.89 11.30 10.32     ~ 206 1
40 NGC 4550 GiP 12 35 30.612 +12 13 15.44 12.97 12.56 11.68     ~ 512 1
41 M 89 LIN 12 35 39.8073444 +12 33 22.830809 11.29 10.73 9.75     ~ 941 2
42 NGC 4564 GiG 12 36 26.994 +11 26 21.55 12.51 12.05 11.12     ~ 569 1
43 NGC 4570 GiG 12 36 53.401 +07 14 47.99   11.8       ~ 315 0
44 M 59 GiG 12 42 02.322 +11 38 48.95   11.0       ~ 667 0
45 NGC 4660 GiP 12 44 31.9848549289 +11 11 25.730688043   12.1       ~ 401 0
46 NGC 5198 GiP 13 30 11.411 +46 40 14.99   13.2       ~ 160 0
47 NGC 5308 GiP 13 47 00.4356033187 +60 58 23.332964486   12.5       ~ 192 0
48 NGC 5813 LIN 15 01 11.265 +01 42 07.09 12.00 11.45 10.46 10.06   ~ 591 1
49 NGC 5831 GiG 15 04 07.024 +01 13 11.70   13.1   11.19   ~ 281 0
50 NGC 5838 GiP 15 05 26.272 +02 05 57.68   12.1   10.26   ~ 224 0
51 NGC 5845 GiG 15 06 00.787 +01 38 01.77   13.8 11.20 12.06 9.94 ~ 360 0
52 NGC 5846 BiC 15 06 29.253 +01 36 20.29   11.9   9.74   ~ 789 1
53 NGC 5982 LIN 15 38 39.778 +59 21 21.21   12.4       ~ 279 0
54 NGC 7332 GiP 22 37 24.522 +23 47 54.06   12.0       ~ 358 0
55 NGC 7457 G 23 00 59.9274269967 +30 08 41.794468187   11.04 11.87     ~ 413 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.04.14-12:34:53

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