Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 380, 246-262 (2007/September-1)
A high-frequency radio continuum study of massive young stellar objects.
GIBB A.G. and HOARE M.G.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present high-resolution observations made with the Very Large Array (VLA) in its A configuration at frequencies between 5 and 43 GHz of a sample of five massive young stellar objects (YSOs): LkHα101, NGC2024-IRS2, S106-IR, W75N and S140-IRS1. The resolution varied from 0.04 arcsec (at 43 GHz) to 0.5 arcsec (at 5 GHz), corresponding to a linear resolution as high as 17 au for our nearest source. A MERLIN observation of S106-IR at 23 GHz with 0.03-arcsec resolution is also presented. S106-IR and S140-IRS1 are elongated at 43 GHz perpendicular to their large-scale bipolar outflows. This confirms the equatorial wind picture for these sources seen previously in MERLIN 5-GHz observations. The other sources are marginally resolved at 43 GHz. The spectral indices we derive for the sources in our sample range from +0.2 to +0.8, generally consistent with ionized stellar winds. We have modelled our sources as uniform, isothermal spherical winds, with LkHα101 and NGC2024-IRS2 yielding the best fits. However, in all cases our fits give wind temperatures of only 2000-5000K, much less than the effective temperatures of main-sequence stars of the same luminosity, a result which is likely due to the clumpy nature of the winds.