In search of possible associationss between planetary nebulae and open clusters.
MAJAESS D.J. and TURNER D.G.
Abstract (from CDS):
We consider the possibility of cluster membership for 13 planetary nebulae that are located in close proximity to open clusters lying in their lines of sight. The short lifetimes and low sample size of intermediate-mass planetary nebulae with respect to nearby open clusters conspire to reduce the probability of observing a true association. Not surprisingly, line-of-sight coincidences almost certainly exist for 7 of the 13 cases considered. Additional studies are advocated, however, for six planetary nebula/open cluster coincidences in which a physical association is not excluded by the available evidence, namely M 1-80/Berkeley 57, NGC 2438/NGC 2437, NGC 2452/NGC 2453, VBRC 2 and NGC 2899/IC 2488, and HeFa 1/NGC 6067. A number of additional potential associations between planetary nebulae and open clusters are tabulated for reference purposes. It is noteworthy that the strongest cases involve planetary nebulae lying in cluster coronae, a feature also found for short-period cluster Cepheids, which are themselves potential progenitors of planetary nebulae.
Star Clusters and Associations