Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 479, 75-82 (2008/2-3)
12CO 4-3 and [CI] 1-0 at the centers of NGC4945 and Circinus.
HITSCHFELD M., ARAVENA M., KRAMER C., BERTOLDI F., STUTZKI J., BENSCH F., BRONFMAN L., CUBICK M., FUJISHITA M., FUKUI Y., GRAF U.U., HONINGH N., ITO S., JAKOB H., JACOBS K., KLEIN U., KOO B.-C., MAY J., MILLER M., MIYAMOTO Y., MIZUNO N., ONISHI T., PARK Y.-S., PINEDA J.L., RABANUS D., ROELLIG M., SASAGO H., SCHIEDER R., SIMON R., SUN K., VOLGENAU N., YAMAMOTO H. and YONEKURA Y.
Abstract (from CDS):
Studying molecular gas in the central regions of the star burst galaxies NGC4945 and Circinus enables us to characterize the physical conditions and compare them to previous local and high-z studies. We estimate temperature, molecular density and column densities of CO and atomic carbon. Using model predictions we give a range of estimated CO/C abundance ratios. Using the new NANTEN2 4 m sub-millimeter telescope in Pampa La Bola, Chile, we observed for the first time CO 4-3 and [CI] 3P1-3P0 at the centers of both galaxies at linear scale of 682 pc and 732 pc respectively. We compute the cooling curves of 12CO and 13CO using radiative transfer models and estimate the physical conditions of CO and [CI]. The centers of NGC4945 and Circinus are very [CI] bright objects, exhibiting [CI] 3P1-3P0 luminosities of 91 and 67K.km/s.kpc2, respectively. The [CI] 3P1-3P0/CO 4-3 ratio of integrated intensities are large at 1.2 in NGC4945 and 2.8 in Circinus. Combining previous CO J= 1-0, 2-1 and 3-2 and 13CO J= 1-0, 2-1 studies with our new observations, the radiative transfer calculations give a range of densities, n(H2)=103-3x104cm–3, and a wide range of kinetic temperatures, Tkin=20-100K, depending on the density. To discuss the degeneracy in density and temperature, we study two representative solutions. In both galaxies the estimated total [CI] cooling intensity is stronger by factors of ∼1-3 compared to the total CO cooling intensity. The CO/C abundance ratios are 0.2-2, similar to values found in Galactic translucent clouds. Our new observations enable us to further constrain the excitation conditions and estimate the line emission of higher-J CO- and the upper [CI]-lines. For the first time we give estimates for the CO/C abundance ratio in the center regions of these galaxies. Future CO J=7-6 and [CI] 2-1 observations will be important to resolve the ambiguity in the physical conditions and confirm the model predictions.
galaxies: starburst - galaxies: nuclei - galaxies: ISM - galaxies: active - galaxies: individual: NGC 4945 - galaxies: individual: Circinus
In reflist Tieftrunk et al. 2001A&A.23.23T is a misprint for 2001A&A.375.L23T
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