Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 489, 105-114 (2008/10-1)
On the origin of field O-type stars.
SCHILBACH E. and ROESER S.
Abstract (from CDS):
We aim to identify the origins of field O-stars in the nearest 2 to 3 kpc around the Sun using the best presently available kinematic data on O-stars and on young open clusters. We investigate the question of whether the present-day data are consistent with the assumption that O-stars have formed in groups (clusters, associations), or in isolation. We apply the epicycle theory to back-trace the orbits of O-type stars and of candidate parent open clusters. From the 370 O-stars in the ``Galactic O star catalog v 2.0'' (GOSV2) we have investigated 93 stars classified as field, and found the origin for 73 of them in 48 open clusters younger than 30Myr. Only for 32 stars or about 9% of all O-stars from this catalogue is the question of their origin in groups not solved; some of them may have originated in isolation or may have disintegrated the group in which they formed. Fifty percent of the young open clusters (age<30Myr) in the ``Catalogue of Open Cluster Data'' (COCD) have O-stars as members, or have ejected at least one O-star in the first 10Myr of their life, or both. During this period the average mass loss from open clusters by ejecting O-stars is found to be 3 to 5M☉ per Myr. We prove that ζ Pup had its origin in the open cluster Trumpler 10 which it left about 2.5Myr ago, and that its present-day distance is 300pc (compared to 440pc before). The revised distance implies a significant revision of the stellar parameters (a radius of 14R☉, a mass of 22.5M☉, and a luminosity of logL/L☉ of 5.74) i.e., ζ Pup is closer, less massive, and less luminous than previously thought. Our findings provide independent estimates of the present-day distances and absolute magnitudes of field O-stars.
stars: early-type - stars: formation - open clusters and associations: general