2008ApJ...681..197P


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.04.15CEST06:24:28

2008ApJ...681..197P - Astrophys. J., 681, 197-224 (2008/July-1)

The ACS Virgo cluster survey. XV. The formation efficiencies of globular clusters in early-type galaxies: the effects of mass and environment.

PENG E.W., JORDAN A., COTE P., TAKAMIYA M., WEST M.J., BLAKESLEE J.P., CHEN C.-W., FERRARESE L., MEI S., TONRY J.L. and WEST A.A.

Abstract (from CDS):

The fraction of stellar mass contained in globular clusters (GCs), also measured by number as the specific frequency, is a fundamental quantity that reflects both a galaxy's early star formation and its entire merging history. We present specific frequencies, luminosities, and mass fractions for the globular cluster systems of 100 early-type galaxies in the ACS Virgo Cluster Survey, the largest homogeneous catalog of its kind. We find the following: (1) GC mass fractions can be high in both giants and dwarfs but are universally low in galaxies with intermediate luminosities. (2) The behavior of specific frequency across galaxy mass is dominated by the blue GCs. (3) GC fractions of low-mass galaxies exhibit a dependence on environment. Nearly all dwarf galaxies with high GC fractions are within 1 Mpc of the cD galaxy M87, presenting the first strong evidence that GC formation in dwarfs is biased toward dense environments. (4) GC formation in central dwarfs is biased because their stars form earliest and most intensely. Comparisons to the Millennium Simulation show that central dwarfs have older stellar populations and form more stars at higher star formation rates (SFRs) and SFR surface densities. The SFR surface density in simulated dwarfs peaks before the total SFR, naturally producing GC populations that are older and more metal-poor than the field stars. (5) Dwarfs within ∼40 kpc of the giant ellipticals M87 and M49 are red and have few or no GCs, suggesting that they have been tidally stripped and have contributed their GCs to the halos of their giant neighbors. The central dwarfs with high GC mass fractions are thus likely to be the survivors most similar to the protogalaxies that assembled the rich M87 globular cluster system.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Galaxies: Dwarf - Galaxies: Elliptical and Lenticular, cD - Galaxies: Evolution - Galaxies: Halos - Galaxies: Star Clusters - Galaxy: Globular Clusters: General

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJ/681/197): table1.dat>

Simbad objects: 108

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Number of rows : 108

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 NGC 821 G 02 08 21.150 +10 59 41.53   12.210 11.310 10.739 9.744 ~ 545 0
2 NAME Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal G 02 39 59.3 -34 26 57   9.02 7.4     ~ 1531 1
3 ACO S 373 ClG 03 38 30 -35 27.3           ~ 1598 0
4 IC 3019 GiG 12 09 22.257 +13 59 32.73   15.0       ~ 98 0
5 IC 3025 GiG 12 10 23.189 +10 11 18.62   15.3       ~ 72 0
6 IC 3032 GiG 12 11 07.764 +14 16 30.17   15.3       ~ 73 0
7 IC 3065 GiG 12 15 12.543 +14 25 58.26   14.7       ~ 80 0
8 MCG+02-31-076 GiG 12 16 33.691 +13 01 52.48   15.2       ~ 64 0
9 IC 3101 LSB 12 17 19.666 +11 56 36.96   15.5       ~ 64 0
10 NGC 4262 GiG 12 19 30.582 +14 52 39.78 13.00 12.49 11.55     ~ 333 1
11 NGC 4267 GiG 12 19 45.2726273070 +12 47 53.701823615   12.4       ~ 228 0
12 UGC 7399 A GiG 12 20 48.757 +17 29 14.14   15.1       ~ 85 0
13 2MASX J12221469+0710018 GiP 12 22 14.7390658782 +07 10 01.684478027           ~ 56 0
14 UGC 7436 GiP 12 22 19.530 +14 45 38.11   15.2       ~ 118 0
15 2MASX J12224115+0757011 GiG 12 22 41.151 +07 57 01.12   15.3       ~ 52 0
16 NGC 4318 GiG 12 22 43.301 +08 11 54.12   14.1       ~ 122 0
17 NGC 4340 GiP 12 23 35.2775321007 +16 43 20.446578725   12.4       ~ 262 0
18 NGC 4350 GiP 12 23 57.814 +16 41 36.08   11.5 11.08     ~ 299 0
19 NGC 4352 GiG 12 24 05.0219273303 +11 13 05.088363600   14.0       ~ 148 0
20 NGC 4365 GiG 12 24 28.228 +07 19 03.07   11.5       ~ 806 0
21 IC 3292 GiG 12 24 48.369 +18 11 42.28   15.5       ~ 76 0
22 NGC 4371 GiG 12 24 55.430 +11 42 15.44 12.35 11.79 10.81     ~ 293 1
23 M 84 Sy2 12 25 03.74333 +12 53 13.1393 12.67 12.09 10.49     ~ 1665 2
24 NGC 4377 GiG 12 25 12.308 +14 45 43.98   12.5       ~ 205 0
25 NGC 4379 GiG 12 25 14.7451190451 +15 36 26.750240178 13.05 12.63 11.72     ~ 212 1
26 M 85 GiP 12 25 24.053 +18 11 27.89   10.2       ~ 612 0
27 NGC 4387 GiG 12 25 41.6768872639 +12 48 37.809497625 13.42 13.01 12.12   10.87 ~ 374 1
28 IC 3328 GiP 12 25 57.964 +10 03 13.37   14.9       ~ 146 0
29 M 86 GiG 12 26 11.814 +12 56 45.49 10.32 9.83 8.90   7.50 ~ 1022 1
30 NAME Vir I ClG 12 26 32.1 +12 43 24   10.00 8.49     ~ 6010 0
31 NGC 4417 GiP 12 26 50.625 +09 35 02.82   12.2       ~ 243 0
32 NGC 4434 GiG 12 27 36.680 +08 09 15.52   13.2       ~ 237 0
33 NGC 4435 GiG 12 27 40.503 +13 04 44.48 12.23 11.74 10.80     ~ 416 2
34 UGC 7580 GiG 12 27 54.833 +08 05 25.68   15.2 14.72     ~ 66 0
35 NGC 4442 GiG 12 28 03.893 +09 48 13.03   11.2       ~ 265 0
36 IC 3383 GiG 12 28 12.3163075226 +10 17 51.447384346   15.5 15.18     ~ 77 0
37 IC 3381 LSB 12 28 14.854 +11 47 23.69   14.42       ~ 146 1
38 NGC 4452 GiG 12 28 43.2984054035 +11 45 18.204118555 13.27 12.87 11.98     ~ 187 1
39 NGC 4458 GiP 12 28 57.532 +13 14 30.90 13.27 12.93 12.07     ~ 392 2
40 NGC 4459 H2G 12 29 00.026 +13 58 42.89   11.6       ~ 502 0
41 NGC 4464 GiG 12 29 21.313 +08 09 23.63   13.5       ~ 219 0
42 GRDG +12 52 GiC 12 29 23.5153719439 +12 27 02.898413946   16 15.29   14.16 ~ 85 0
43 NGC 4467 GiG 12 29 30.267 +07 59 34.62   15.2       ~ 163 0
44 2MASX J12293498+0803286 G 12 29 34.9891159342 +08 03 28.779877515           ~ 79 0
45 M 49 Sy2 12 29 46.798 +08 00 01.48   13.21 12.17     ~ 1989 2
46 NGC 4473 GiG 12 29 48.878 +13 25 45.55 11.60 11.16 10.20     ~ 612 1
47 NGC 4474 GiG 12 29 53.544 +14 04 07.22   12.6       ~ 248 0
48 NGC 4476 GiG 12 29 59.081 +12 20 55.21 13.28 13.01 12.19     ~ 296 1
49 NGC 4482 GiG 12 30 10.3250399673 +10 46 46.084712572   14.2       ~ 153 0
50 NGC 4478 GiP 12 30 17.439 +12 19 42.88 12.82 12.36 11.45   10.17 ~ 474 1
51 NGC 4479 GiG 12 30 18.343 +13 34 38.88 13.73 13.40 12.44     ~ 169 2
52 UGCA 283 GiG 12 30 31.985 +12 29 24.85   14.5       ~ 389 0
53 NGC 4483 GiG 12 30 40.620 +09 00 56.39   13.4       ~ 149 0
54 M 87 BiC 12 30 49.42338230 +12 23 28.0438581 10.16 9.59 8.63   7.49 ~ 6383 3
55 NGC 4489 GiG 12 30 52.240 +16 45 31.31   13.2       ~ 242 0
56 UGC 7658 GiG 12 30 57.730 +12 16 13.30   11.2       ~ 213 0
57 IC 3442 GiG 12 31 20.1847539251 +14 06 54.716926859   15.4       ~ 93 0
58 IC 3461 GiG 12 32 02.747 +11 53 23.16   15.4 14.88   13.3 ~ 118 0
59 IC 3468 GiG 12 32 14.209 +10 15 05.55   14.6       ~ 124 0
60 IC 3470 GiP 12 32 23.353 +11 15 47.56   15.0       ~ 105 0
61 IC 798 GiG 12 32 33.398 +15 24 55.78   15.3       ~ 90 0
62 NGC 4515 GiG 12 33 04.944 +16 15 55.76   13.3       ~ 135 0
63 IC 3487 GiG 12 33 13.601 +09 23 49.76   15.1       ~ 71 0
64 IC 3490 GiC 12 33 13.902 +10 55 42.73   15.6       ~ 70 0
65 IC 3492 GiC 12 33 19.772 +12 51 12.77   15 15.30     ~ 76 0
66 LEDA 41723 GiC 12 33 34.654 +11 15 43.02   16       ~ 52 0
67 IC 3501 GiG 12 33 51.606 +13 19 21.35   15.0       ~ 88 0
68 NGC 4526 GiG 12 34 03.029 +07 41 56.90   10.6       ~ 613 1
69 NGC 4528 GiG 12 34 06.006 +11 19 18.90 13.39 12.97 12.06     ~ 173 1
70 IC 3506 GiC 12 34 06.739 +12 44 29.75   16.67 15.93   14.1 ~ 82 0
71 IC 3509 GiG 12 34 11.565 +12 02 55.89   15.3       ~ 102 0
72 NGC 4550 GiP 12 35 30.612 +12 13 15.44 12.97 12.56 11.68     ~ 512 1
73 2MASX J12353723+1222554 GiP 12 35 37.2509396284 +12 22 55.233540771   15.41       ~ 85 0
74 NGC 4551 GiP 12 35 37.980 +12 15 50.44 13.49 12.97 12.02     ~ 337 1
75 M 89 LIN 12 35 39.8073444 +12 33 22.830809 11.29 10.73 9.75     ~ 941 2
76 LEDA 42046 G 12 36 24.781 +10 23 04.75   16       ~ 71 0
77 NGC 4564 GiG 12 36 26.994 +11 26 21.55 12.51 12.05 11.12     ~ 569 1
78 NGC 4570 GiG 12 36 53.401 +07 14 47.99   11.8       ~ 315 0
79 IC 3586 GiG 12 36 54.858 +12 31 12.49   15.3       ~ 86 0
80 NGC 4578 GiG 12 37 30.546 +09 33 18.44   12.9       ~ 262 0
81 IC 3602 GiG 12 38 07.097 +10 04 57.22   15.5       ~ 75 0
82 IC 3612 G 12 39 04.6879834542 +14 43 45.574928192   15.4       ~ 65 0
83 IC 3633 GiG 12 40 11.2497201632 +09 53 46.052380646   15.4       ~ 68 0
84 IC 3635 GiG 12 40 13.334 +12 52 29.98   15.5       ~ 72 0
85 MCG+03-32-082 G 12 40 19.651 +15 56 06.97   14.9       ~ 57 0
86 IC 3647 GiG 12 40 52.684 +10 28 35.51   15.3       ~ 66 0
87 IC 3652 GiG 12 40 58.5600973863 +11 11 04.081313393   15.1       ~ 104 0
88 IC 3653 GiG 12 41 15.721 +11 23 13.85   14.7       ~ 104 0
89 NGC 4612 GiG 12 41 32.758 +07 18 53.21   11.90       ~ 199 1
90 IC 3663 GiC 12 41 39.412 +12 14 50.63   15.65     14.0 ~ 66 0
91 UGC 7854 G 12 41 51.987 +09 24 10.20   15.3       ~ 69 0
92 M 59 GiG 12 42 02.322 +11 38 48.95   11.0       ~ 667 0
93 IC 3672 GiG 12 42 08.6669706774 +11 45 15.437359667   15.1       ~ 101 0
94 NGC 4623 GiG 12 42 10.704 +07 40 36.96   13.24       ~ 180 1
95 NGC 4638 GiP 12 42 47.4239000267 +11 26 32.961349655   12.2 11.23     ~ 270 1
96 2MASX J12425002+1317381 G 12 42 49.9841011403 +13 17 37.802384347           ~ 12 0
97 IC 3693 GiG 12 42 58.034 +10 40 54.93   15.4       ~ 53 0
98 M 60 GiP 12 43 40.008 +11 33 09.40   10.3       ~ 1270 0
99 2MASX J12441198+1256306 G 12 44 11.982 +12 56 30.64   15.3       ~ 57 0
100 NGC 4660 GiP 12 44 31.9848549289 +11 11 25.730688043   12.1       ~ 401 0
101 IC 3735 G 12 45 20.376 +13 41 33.74   15.1       ~ 79 0
102 IC 3773 GiG 12 47 15.264 +10 12 12.40   14.3       ~ 119 0
103 IC 3779 GiG 12 47 20.281 +12 09 59.58   15.5     13.3 ~ 75 0
104 NGC 4754 GiP 12 52 17.563 +11 18 49.18   11.6       ~ 266 0
105 NGC 4762 LIN 12 52 56.049 +11 13 50.88   11.1       ~ 342 0
106 NAME UMi Galaxy G 15 09 11.34 +67 12 51.7   13.60 10.6     ~ 1214 0
107 NAME Dra dSph G 17 20 14.335 +57 55 16.39   12.40 10.6     ~ 1202 1
108 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 7231 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.04.15-06:24:28

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