2008ApJ...686..948B


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.08.14CEST19:39:17

2008ApJ...686..948B - Astrophys. J., 686, 948-965 (2008/October-3)

The resolved properties of extragalactic giant molecular clouds.

BOLATTO A.D., LEROY A.K., ROSOLOWSKY E., WALTER F. and BLITZ L.

Abstract (from CDS):

We use high spatial resolution observations of CO to systematically measure the resolved size-line width, luminosity-line width, luminosity-size, and mass-luminosity relations of GMCs in a variety of extragalactic systems. Although the data are heterogeneous, we analyze them in a consistent manner to remove the biases introduced by limited sensitivity and resolution, thus obtaining reliable sizes, velocity dispersions, and luminosities. We compare the results obtained in dwarf galaxies with those from the Local Group spiral galaxies. We find that extragalactic GMC properties measured across a wide range of environments are very much compatible with those in the Galaxy. The property that shows the largest variability is their resolved brightness temperature, although even that is similar to the average Galactic value in most sources. We use these results to investigate metallicity trends in the cloud average column density and virial CO-to-H2factor. We find that these measurements do not accord with simple predictions from photoionization-regulated star formation theory, although this could be due to the fact that we do not sample small enough spatial scales or the full gravitational potential of the molecular cloud. We also find that the virial CO-to-H2conversion factor in CO-bright GMCs is very similar to Galactic and that the excursions do not show a measurable metallicity trend. We contrast these results with estimates of molecular mass based on far-infrared measurements obtained for the Small Magellanic Cloud, which systematically yield larger masses, and interpret this discrepancy as arising from large H2 envelopes that surround the CO-bright cores. We conclude that GMCs identified on the basis of their CO emission are a unique class of objects that exhibit a remarkably uniform set of properties from galaxy to galaxy.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Galaxies: Dwarf - Galaxies: Individual: Alphanumeric: IC 10 - Galaxies: Individual: Messier Number: M31 - Galaxies: Individual: Messier Number: M33 - Galaxies: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 185 - Galaxies: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 205 - Galaxies: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 1569 - Galaxies: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 2976 - Galaxies: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 3077 - Galaxies: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 4214 - Galaxies: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 4449 - Galaxies: Individual: NGC Number: NGC 4605 - Galaxies: ISM - ISM: Clouds - Galaxies: Magellanic Clouds

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJ/686/948): table1.dat table3.dat>

Nomenclature: Table 3: [BLR2008] NGC NNNN NN, [BLR2008] IC 10 NN, [BLR2008] SMC LIRSNN N, [BLR2008] SMC N83 N, [BLR2008] LMC N159 N, [BLR2008] MNN NN, N=172.

Simbad objects: 193

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Number of rows : 193

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 [BLR2008] IC 10 11 MoC 00 20 17.3 +59 18 43           ~ 1 0
2 [BLR2008] IC 10 12 MoC 00 20 19.7 +59 20 48           ~ 1 0
3 [BLR2008] IC 10 14 MoC 00 20 21.7 +59 17 10           ~ 1 0
4 [W95b] MC 5 MoC 00 20 22.2 +59 20 04           ~ 2 0
5 [BLR2008] IC 10 6 MoC 00 20 22.3 +59 21 06           ~ 1 0
6 [BLR2008] IC 10 13 MoC 00 20 23.0 +59 17 12           ~ 1 0
7 [BLR2008] IC 10 5 MoC 00 20 23.1 +59 21 20           ~ 1 0
8 IC 10 G 00 20 23.16 +59 17 34.7   13.6 9.5     ~ 1010 0
9 [BLR2008] IC 10 7 MoC 00 20 26.8 +59 17 30           ~ 1 0
10 [BLR2008] IC 10 4 MoC 00 20 27.1 +59 16 54           ~ 1 0
11 [BLR2008] IC 10 3 MoC 00 20 27.2 +59 17 05           ~ 1 0
12 [BLR2008] IC 10 8 MoC 00 20 27.2 +59 17 23           ~ 1 0
13 [W95b] MC 2 MoC 00 20 28.0 +59 16 57           ~ 6 0
14 [BLR2008] IC 10 2 MoC 00 20 29.0 +59 17 03           ~ 1 0
15 [BLR2008] IC 10 9 MoC 00 20 48.5 +59 18 58           ~ 1 0
16 [BLR2008] NGC 185 1 MoC 00 38 56.4 +48 20 20           ~ 1 0
17 NGC 185 Sy2 00 38 57.970 +48 20 14.56   9.10 9.2     ~ 729 1
18 M 110 GiG 00 40 22.0544552438 +41 41 07.496294862   8.92 8.07     ~ 1211 1
19 [BLR2008] NGC 205 1 MoC 00 40 24.0 +41 41 52           ~ 1 0
20 [BLR2008] M31 70 MoC 00 41 57.6 +41 21 53           ~ 1 0
21 [BLR2008] M31 75 MoC 00 41 58.9 +41 21 51           ~ 1 0
22 [BLR2008] M31 71 MoC 00 42 00.1 +41 22 18           ~ 1 0
23 [BLR2008] M31 76 MoC 00 42 00.7 +41 22 16           ~ 1 0
24 [BLR2008] M31 72 MoC 00 42 01.0 +41 21 38           ~ 1 0
25 [BLR2008] M31 73 MoC 00 42 02.0 +41 21 42           ~ 1 0
26 [BLR2008] M31 74 MoC 00 42 03.2 +41 22 36           ~ 1 0
27 [BLR2008] M31 36 MoC 00 42 09.1 +41 24 21           ~ 1 0
28 [BLR2008] M31 38 MoC 00 42 10.8 +41 24 48           ~ 1 0
29 [BLR2008] M31 37 MoC 00 42 15.0 +41 25 24           ~ 1 0
30 [BLR2008] M31 43 MoC 00 42 17.2 +41 26 38           ~ 1 0
31 [BLR2008] M31 40 MoC 00 42 17.8 +41 26 24           ~ 1 0
32 [BLR2008] M31 44 MoC 00 42 18.5 +41 27 50           ~ 1 0
33 [BLR2008] M31 41 MoC 00 42 18.6 +41 26 52           ~ 1 0
34 [BLR2008] M31 39 MoC 00 42 19.6 +41 26 56           ~ 1 0
35 [BLR2008] M31 50 MoC 00 42 20.6 +41 27 54           ~ 1 0
36 [BLR2008] M31 42 MoC 00 42 20.8 +41 27 20           ~ 1 0
37 [BLR2008] M31 46 MoC 00 42 23.3 +41 28 04           ~ 1 0
38 [BLR2008] M31 45 MoC 00 42 24.3 +41 27 35           ~ 1 0
39 [BLR2008] M31 48 MoC 00 42 25.2 +41 28 01           ~ 1 0
40 [BLR2008] M31 47 MoC 00 42 25.3 +41 28 19           ~ 1 0
41 [BLR2008] M31 49 MoC 00 42 26.0 +41 27 42           ~ 1 0
42 [BLR2008] M31 61 MoC 00 42 26.3 +41 28 48           ~ 1 0
43 [BLR2008] M31 53 MoC 00 42 27.9 +41 29 17           ~ 1 0
44 [BLR2008] M31 52 MoC 00 42 29.3 +41 28 53           ~ 1 0
45 [BLR2008] M31 15 MoC 00 42 30.0 +41 29 09           ~ 1 0
46 [BLR2008] M31 55 MoC 00 42 30.2 +41 29 39           ~ 1 0
47 [BLR2008] M31 56 MoC 00 42 30.3 +41 29 11           ~ 1 0
48 [BLR2008] M31 59 MoC 00 42 30.4 +41 28 49           ~ 1 0
49 [BLR2008] M31 19 MoC 00 42 30.5 +41 29 41           ~ 1 0
50 [BLR2008] M31 16 MoC 00 42 30.6 +41 29 22           ~ 1 0
51 [BLR2008] M31 58 MoC 00 42 31.5 +41 29 41           ~ 1 0
52 [BLR2008] M31 18 MoC 00 42 31.6 +41 29 51           ~ 1 0
53 [BLR2008] M31 57 MoC 00 42 32.4 +41 29 57           ~ 1 0
54 [BLR2008] M31 17 MoC 00 42 32.5 +41 30 07           ~ 1 0
55 [BLR2008] M31 20 MoC 00 42 32.6 +41 29 57           ~ 1 0
56 [BLR2008] M31 51 MoC 00 42 32.7 +41 30 00           ~ 1 0
57 [BLR2008] M31 60 MoC 00 42 32.9 +41 29 26           ~ 1 0
58 [BLR2008] M31 23 MoC 00 42 33.0 +41 29 24           ~ 1 0
59 [BLR2008] M31 24 MoC 00 42 33.0 +41 29 30           ~ 1 0
60 [BLR2008] M31 9 MoC 00 42 34.0 +41 33 17           ~ 1 0
61 [BLR2008] M31 54 MoC 00 42 34.2 +41 30 07           ~ 1 0
62 [BLR2008] M31 21 MoC 00 42 34.3 +41 30 07           ~ 1 0
63 [BLR2008] M31 68 MoC 00 42 35.0 +41 30 40           ~ 1 0
64 [BLR2008] M31 22 MoC 00 42 35.1 +41 29 05           ~ 1 0
65 [BLR2008] M31 8 MoC 00 42 35.8 +41 32 11           ~ 1 0
66 [BLR2008] M31 67 MoC 00 42 36.1 +41 32 10           ~ 1 0
67 [BLR2008] M31 63 MoC 00 42 37.9 +41 31 52           ~ 1 0
68 [BLR2008] M31 64 MoC 00 42 38.0 +41 31 47           ~ 1 0
69 [BLR2008] M31 1 MoC 00 42 38.0 +41 31 52           ~ 1 0
70 [BLR2008] M31 69 MoC 00 42 38.8 +41 31 17           ~ 1 0
71 [BLR2008] M31 62 MoC 00 42 39.1 +41 32 02           ~ 1 0
72 [BLR2008] M31 65 MoC 00 42 39.5 +41 32 02           ~ 1 0
73 [BLR2008] M31 3 MoC 00 42 39.5 +41 32 04           ~ 1 0
74 [BLR2008] M31 2 MoC 00 42 39.6 +41 32 06           ~ 1 0
75 [BLR2008] M31 7 MoC 00 42 40.9 +41 32 48           ~ 1 0
76 [BLR2008] M31 4 MoC 00 42 41.1 +41 32 14           ~ 1 0
77 [BLR2008] M31 5 MoC 00 42 42.2 +41 32 11           ~ 1 0
78 [BLR2008] M31 66 MoC 00 42 42.4 +41 31 59           ~ 1 0
79 [BLR2008] M31 6 MoC 00 42 42.6 +41 31 54           ~ 1 0
80 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 10960 1
81 [BLR2008] M31 14 MoC 00 42 59.7 +41 36 47           ~ 1 0
82 [BLR2008] M31 10 MoC 00 43 00.5 +41 36 56           ~ 1 0
83 [WB92a] 79 HII 00 43 01.486 +41 37 16.69           ~ 3 0
84 [BLR2008] M31 12 MoC 00 43 01.9 +41 37 27           ~ 1 0
85 [BLR2008] M31 13 MoC 00 43 02.7 +41 37 39           ~ 1 0
86 [BLR2008] M31 31 MoC 00 43 31.8 +41 09 44           ~ 1 0
87 [BLR2008] M31 35 MoC 00 43 33.3 +41 10 01           ~ 1 0
88 [BLR2008] M31 32 MoC 00 43 33.4 +41 08 56           ~ 1 0
89 [BLR2008] M31 33 MoC 00 43 33.5 +41 09 56           ~ 1 0
90 [BLR2008] M31 34 MoC 00 43 34.4 +41 09 58           ~ 1 0
91 [BLR2008] M31 25 MoC 00 43 53.3 +41 25 25           ~ 1 0
92 [BLR2008] M31 26 MoC 00 43 54.6 +41 26 31           ~ 1 0
93 [BLR2008] M31 27 MoC 00 43 56.0 +41 26 06           ~ 1 0
94 [BLR2008] M31 28 MoC 00 43 56.4 +41 26 33           ~ 1 0
95 [BLR2008] M31 29 MoC 00 44 43.8 +41 27 58           ~ 1 0
96 [BLR2008] M31 30 MoC 00 44 44.1 +41 28 03           ~ 1 0
97 NGC 261 HII 00 46 31.5 -73 06 16           ~ 61 1
98 [BLR2008] SMC LIRS36 1 MoC 00 46 39.4 -73 06 03           ~ 1 0
99 [BLR2008] SMC LIRS49 1 MoC 00 48 20.5 -73 05 22           ~ 1 0
100 LHA 115-N 27 Em* 00 48 24.0 -73 05 50           ~ 58 0
101 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 9483 1
102 [BLR2008] SMC N83 4 MoC 01 12 05.8 -73 31 01           ~ 2 0
103 [BLR2008] SMC N83 3 MoC 01 12 17.6 -73 34 12           ~ 1 0
104 [BLR2008] SMC N83 1 MoC 01 12 25.0 -73 33 06           ~ 1 0
105 [BLR2008] SMC N83 2 MoC 01 12 41.3 -73 32 14           ~ 2 0
106 [BLR2008] SMC N83 6 MoC 01 12 43.9 -73 35 16           ~ 1 0
107 [BLR2008] SMC N83 7 MoC 01 13 11.9 -73 34 17           ~ 1 0
108 [BLR2008] SMC N83 8 MoC 01 13 23.5 -73 36 08           ~ 1 0
109 [BLR2008] SMC N83 5 MoC 01 13 32.9 -73 33 04           ~ 1 0
110 NGC 456 HII 01 13 44.4 -73 17 26           ~ 113 0
111 LHA 115-N 84 HII 01 14 27.7 -73 12 51           ~ 60 0
112 [BLR2008] M33 3 MoC 01 33 16.5 +30 52 50           ~ 1 0
113 [BLR2008] M33 4 MoC 01 33 16.9 +30 52 46           ~ 1 0
114 [BLR2008] M33 12 MoC 01 33 40.1 +30 38 40           ~ 4 0
115 [GBR2012] 103 MoC 01 33 41.0 +30 39 14           ~ 18 0
116 [EPR2003] 22 MoC 01 33 42.7 +30 33 10           ~ 8 0
117 [REP2003] 7 MoC 01 33 50.1 +30 37 28           ~ 9 0
118 M 33 GiG 01 33 50.904 +30 39 35.79 6.17 6.27 5.72     ~ 5150 1
119 [BLR2008] M33 14 MoC 01 33 52.4 +30 39 19           ~ 13 0
120 [BLR2008] M33 24 MoC 01 33 53.1 +30 37 47           ~ 1 0
121 [BLR2008] M33 15 MoC 01 33 53.1 +30 39 01           ~ 10 0
122 [BLR2008] M33 9 MoC 01 33 54.8 +30 37 44           ~ 1 0
123 [EPR2003] 16 MoC 01 33 54.9 +30 37 44           ~ 8 0
124 [BLR2008] M33 6 MoC 01 33 55.5 +30 41 35           ~ 1 0
125 [BLR2008] M33 21 MoC 01 33 57.9 +30 48 58           ~ 1 0
126 [BLR2008] M33 22 MoC 01 33 58.8 +30 48 44           ~ 5 0
127 [BLR2008] M33 20 MoC 01 33 59.6 +30 49 11           ~ 5 0
128 [BLR2008] M33 16 MoC 01 33 59.7 +30 41 32           ~ 7 0
129 [BLR2008] M33 19 MoC 01 33 59.9 +30 49 26           ~ 1 0
130 [BLR2008] M33 8 MoC 01 34 00.0 +30 41 49           ~ 1 0
131 [WS90b] MC 20 MoC 01 34 00.1 +30 40 47           ~ 17 0
132 [BLR2008] M33 27 MoC 01 34 07.1 +30 48 59           ~ 1 0
133 [EPR2003] 1 MoC 01 34 09.3 +30 49 06           ~ 14 0
134 [BLR2008] M33 26 MoC 01 34 10.7 +30 36 18           ~ 10 0
135 [EPR2003] 58 MoC 01 34 13.0 +30 42 02           ~ 6 0
136 BCLMP 710 C?* 01 34 13.666 +30 33 43.35 15.67 15.75 15.90 15.94 16.22 ~ 23 0
137 [EPR2003] 21 MoC 01 34 16.7 +30 39 18           ~ 7 0
138 [THK99] 1 MoC 04 30 45.8 +64 50 54           ~ 6 0
139 [THK99] 2 MoC 04 30 46.1 +64 50 55           ~ 7 0
140 HK NGC 1569 45 MoC 04 30 46.7 +64 50 59           ~ 21 1
141 [THK99] 5 MoC 04 30 47.2 +64 51 14           ~ 2 0
142 [THK99] 4 MoC 04 30 47.8 +64 51 08           ~ 3 0
143 NGC 1569 IG 04 30 49.186 +64 50 52.52 11.72 11.86 11.03     ~ 1153 3
144 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 14883 1
145 NAME 30 Dor Nebula SFR 05 38 36.0 -69 05 11           ~ 1045 2
146 [BLR2008] LMC N159 8 MoC 05 39 40.9 -69 44 46           ~ 1 0
147 [BLR2008] LMC N159 6 MoC 05 39 41.4 -69 42 01           ~ 1 0
148 LHA 120-N 159 HII 05 39 46.650 -69 45 39.94           ~ 249 2
149 [BLR2008] LMC N159 3 MoC 05 40 00.9 -69 47 21           ~ 1 0
150 [BLR2008] LMC N159 5 MoC 05 40 04.7 -69 40 34           ~ 1 0
151 [BLR2008] LMC N159 2 MoC 05 40 29.9 -69 52 10           ~ 1 0
152 [BLR2008] LMC N159 1 MoC 05 40 36.5 -69 46 11           ~ 1 0
153 [BLR2008] LMC N159 7 MoC 05 40 37.9 -69 42 23           ~ 1 0
154 [BLR2008] LMC N159 4 MoC 05 40 49.9 -69 41 45           ~ 1 0
155 [BLR2008] NGC 2976 11 MoC 09 47 07.3 +67 55 11           ~ 1 0
156 [BLR2008] NGC 2976 10 MoC 09 47 09.7 +67 55 22           ~ 1 0
157 [BLR2008] NGC 2976 9 MoC 09 47 11.7 +67 54 59           ~ 1 0
158 [BLR2008] NGC 2976 8 MoC 09 47 13.0 +67 54 54           ~ 1 0
159 [BLR2008] NGC 2976 3 MoC 09 47 14.9 +67 54 44           ~ 1 0
160 [BLR2008] NGC 2976 6 MoC 09 47 15.3 +67 55 05           ~ 1 0
161 [BLR2008] NGC 2976 7 MoC 09 47 15.3 +67 55 17           ~ 1 0
162 NGC 2976 GiP 09 47 15.458 +67 54 58.97 11.77 11.03 10.16 9.51   ~ 585 1
163 [BLR2008] NGC 2976 5 MoC 09 47 17.3 +67 54 59           ~ 1 0
164 [BLR2008] NGC 2976 4 MoC 09 47 18.4 +67 54 48           ~ 1 0
165 [BLR2008] NGC 2976 1 MoC 09 47 23.6 +67 54 40           ~ 1 0
166 [BLR2008] NGC 2976 2 MoC 09 47 24.1 +67 54 34           ~ 1 0
167 NAME M 81-82 Group GrG 09 55 +69.1           ~ 635 0
168 M 81 Sy2 09 55 33.17306143 +69 03 55.0609270   7.89 6.94     ~ 3975 5
169 M 82 IG 09 55 52.430 +69 40 46.93 9.61 9.30 8.41     ~ 5344 6
170 [BLR2008] NGC 3077 3 MoC 09 59 19.5 +68 58 27           ~ 1 0
171 [BLR2008] NGC 3077 1 MoC 09 59 19.7 +68 58 28           ~ 1 0
172 [BLR2008] NGC 3077 5 MoC 09 59 19.8 +68 58 31           ~ 1 0
173 [BLR2008] NGC 3077 2 MoC 09 59 19.9 +68 58 31           ~ 1 0
174 [BLR2008] NGC 3077 6 MoC 09 59 20.9 +68 58 34           ~ 1 0
175 [BLR2008] NGC 3077 4 MoC 09 59 21.6 +68 58 35           ~ 1 0
176 NGC 3077 GiP 10 03 19.0965510921 +68 44 01.556166166 11.23 10.85 10.14 9.74   ~ 694 0
177 [BLR2008] NGC 4214 5 MoC 12 15 36.7 +36 20 03           ~ 1 0
178 [BLR2008] NGC 4214 4 MoC 12 15 36.9 +36 20 03           ~ 1 0
179 [BLR2008] NGC 4214 3 MoC 12 15 38.3 +36 19 33           ~ 1 0
180 NGC 4228 SBG 12 15 39.174 +36 19 36.80 10.63 10.30 9.93 9.74   ~ 865 1
181 [BLR2008] NGC 4214 2 MoC 12 15 40.7 +36 19 11           ~ 1 0
182 [BLR2008] NGC 4214 1 MoC 12 15 40.9 +36 19 03           ~ 1 0
183 [BLR2008] NGC 4449 1 MoC 12 28 09.0 +44 05 21           ~ 1 0
184 NGC 4449 EmG 12 28 11.118 +44 05 36.81 10.11 9.98 9.64 9.45   ~ 1025 1
185 [BLR2008] NGC 4605 6 MoC 12 39 55.1 +61 36 42           ~ 1 0
186 [BLR2008] NGC 4605 5 MoC 12 39 56.4 +61 36 37           ~ 1 0
187 [BLR2008] NGC 4605 4 MoC 12 39 58.0 +61 36 46           ~ 1 0
188 NGC 4605 GiG 12 39 59.381 +61 36 33.09   10.94   10.35   ~ 288 2
189 [BLR2008] NGC 4605 3 MoC 12 40 02.8 +61 36 10           ~ 1 0
190 [BLR2008] NGC 4605 2 MoC 12 40 03.9 +61 36 06           ~ 1 0
191 [BLR2008] NGC 4605 1 MoC 12 40 05.1 +61 36 08           ~ 1 0
192 NAME Gal Center reg 17 45 40.04 -29 00 28.1           ~ 11620 0
193 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 7005 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.08.14-19:39:17

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