2008ApJS..178....1S


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.12.16CET05:52:08

2008ApJS..178....1S - Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser., 178, 1-19 (2008/September-0)

The fractal distribution of H II regions in disk galaxies.

SANCHEZ N. and ALFARO E.J.

Abstract (from CDS):

It is known that interstellar gas has a fractal structure in a wide range of spatial scales with a fractal dimension that seems to be a constant around Df≃2.7. It is expected that stars forming from this fractal medium exhibit similar fractal patterns. Here we address this issue by quantifying the degree to which star-forming events are clumped. We develop, test, and apply a precise and accurate technique to calculate the correlation dimension Dc of the distribution of H II regions in a sample of disk galaxies. We find that the determination of Dc is limited by the number of H II regions, since if there are ≲100 regions available, then a bias tending to underestimate the dimension is produced. The reliable results are distributed in the range 1.5≲Dc≲2.0 with an average value <Dc≥1.81. This corresponds to a three-dimensional dimension of <Df≥2.73, very similar to the value measured in the interstellar clouds. However, we get significant variations in the fractal dimension among galaxies, contrary to the universal picture sometimes claimed in literature. The fractal dimension exhibits a weak but significant correlation with the absolute magnitude and, to a lesser extent, with the galactic radius. The faintest galaxies tend to distribute their H II regions in more clustered (less uniform) patterns. The fractal dimension for the brightest H II regions within the same galaxy seems to be smaller than for the faintest ones, suggesting some kind of evolutionary effect, but the obtained correlation remains unchanged if only the brightest regions are taken into account.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Catalogs - Galaxies: Structure - ISM: H II Regions - Stars: Formation

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJS/178/1): table2.dat table3.dat hii/*>

Nomenclature: Catalogue: [SA2008] DDO NNN +XX.xx+YY.yy, [SA2008] ESO 377-24 +XX.xx+YY.yy, [SA2008] IC NNNN +XX.xx+YY.yy, [SA2008] NGC NNNN +XX.xx+YY.yy, N=-.

Simbad objects: 103

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Number of rows : 103

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 IC 10 G 00 20 23.16 +59 17 34.7   13.6 9.5     ~ 984 0
2 NGC 210 GiP 00 40 34.9915408968 -13 52 21.998215700   11.8   11.00 11.4 ~ 156 0
3 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 10616 1
4 MCG-01-03-065 LSB 01 01 33.987 -07 35 18.75 12.57 12.70 12.17 12.8 12.5 ~ 66 1
5 M 33 GiG 01 33 50.904 +30 39 35.79 6.17 6.27 5.72     ~ 5038 1
6 M 74 G 01 36 41.772 +15 47 00.46 10.52 10.00 9.46 9.16   ~ 1345 1
7 NGC 864 H2G 02 15 27.641 +06 00 09.43   12.00       ~ 199 1
8 NGC 1042 GiP 02 40 23.9725496856 -08 26 00.749394900 11.47 11.56 11.02 11.7 11.4 ~ 212 1
9 M 77 GiP 02 42 40.771 -00 00 47.84 9.70 9.61 8.87 10.1 9.9 ~ 4003 2
10 NGC 1073 EmG 02 43 40.598 +01 22 33.13   11.3   11.3 11.8 ~ 300 0
11 NGC 1097 LIN 02 46 19.059 -30 16 29.68 10.46 9.97 9.48 8.72 9.8 ~ 1152 3
12 NGC 1156 rG 02 59 42.8526900556 +25 14 28.350265697 12.13 12.32 11.74     ~ 272 1
13 NGC 1300 GiP 03 19 41.0453355271 -19 24 40.141850719   11.16 10.42 9.90 10.7 ~ 431 0
14 NGC 1566 Sy1 04 20 00.4020009055 -54 56 16.578104141 10.29 10.19 9.73 9.21 10.1 ~ 695 2
15 NGC 1672 SyG 04 45 42.552 -59 14 50.68 10.29 10.53 9.68 9.53 10.2 ~ 306 1
16 NGC 1808 Sy2 05 07 42.343 -37 30 46.98 11.05 10.80 9.94 9.36 10.2 ~ 633 3
17 NGC 2363A HII 07 28 42.8 +69 11 21           ~ 536 3
18 NGC 2366 H2G 07 28 51.85 +69 12 31.1 12.25 11.86 11.39 11.33   ~ 687 0
19 UGC 3974 G 07 41 56.3061361330 +16 48 07.439323443   15.4       ~ 197 0
20 UGC 4305 IG 08 19 04.9878269182 +70 43 13.025604473 12.06 11.72 11.39 11.11   ~ 673 2
21 NGC 2775 G 09 10 20.112 +07 02 16.53   11.417 10.481 9.920 8.994 ~ 314 0
22 NGC 2805 GiP 09 20 20.3890361599 +64 06 10.699751669   11.9       ~ 188 1
23 NGC 2997 GiG 09 45 38.7537949543 -31 11 27.357027761   9.97 9.41 8.84 9.9 ~ 369 0
24 IC 2510 Sy2 09 47 43.3494 -32 50 10.975   15.5       ~ 45 0
25 NGC 2985 Sy1 09 50 22.233 +72 16 43.13   11.37 10.61     ~ 216 1
26 M 81 Sy2 09 55 33.17306143 +69 03 55.0609270   7.89 6.94     ~ 3901 5
27 NGC 3081 Sy2 09 59 29.5436045645 -22 49 34.748021329   13.06 13.55 11.67 12.1 ~ 398 0
28 NGC 3169 GiP 10 14 15.099 +03 27 58.03   13.46 12.41     ~ 328 1
29 IC 2560 Sy2 10 16 18.7076737537 -33 33 49.712230914   12.53 13.31 11.25 12.2 ~ 219 0
30 NGC 3180 GiG 10 18 16.985 +41 25 27.77   10.4       ~ 611 0
31 NGC 3227 GiP 10 23 30.57 +19 51 54.3   12.61 11.79     ~ 1497 2
32 NGC 3344 EmG 10 43 31.150 +24 55 19.99 10.38 10.54 9.86 9.71   ~ 338 1
33 M 95 GiP 10 43 57.733 +11 42 13.00 10.71 10.51 9.73 9.48   ~ 909 2
34 NGC 3367 Sy1 10 46 34.9540814677 +13 45 03.084131268 11.89 12.05 11.50     ~ 248 1
35 NGC 3359 EmG 10 46 36.845 +63 13 25.10 10.83 11.03 10.57     ~ 338 1
36 M 96 GiP 10 46 45.744 +11 49 11.78 10.42 10.15 9.25 8.99   ~ 728 1
37 NGC 3393 Sy2 10 48 23.467 -25 09 43.30   13.10 13.95 11.67 12.2 ~ 332 3
38 NGC 3486 Sy2 11 00 23.946 +28 58 29.35 10.89 11.11 10.53 10.40   ~ 312 1
39 ESO 377-24 Sy1 11 12 33.4 -36 25 31   13.54 13.11 11.98   ~ 26 0
40 NGC 3631 IG 11 21 02.944 +53 10 09.95   11.0       ~ 318 1
41 NGC 3660 Sy2 11 23 32.2791583222 -08 39 30.755681618   15.34 14.45     ~ 160 0
42 NGC 3726 GiG 11 33 21.1357515876 +47 01 45.260627622   11.11   10.02   ~ 316 0
43 NGC 3783 Sy1 11 39 01.7095761008 -37 44 19.008597647   12.46 13.43 11.33 12.1 ~ 1451 0
44 NGC 3810 GiG 11 40 58.737 +11 28 16.07   11.4       ~ 301 1
45 NGC 3982 Sy1 11 56 28.169 +55 07 31.30   12.20 11.70 11.18   ~ 476 1
46 NGC 4030 GiP 12 00 23.6122434029 -01 06 00.223672461   11.42   10.3 10.4 ~ 285 1
47 NGC 4051 Sy1 12 03 09.6098828919 +44 31 52.693714606   11.08 12.92 9.94   ~ 1956 1
48 NGC 4123 AGN 12 08 11.082 +02 52 41.91   13.1       ~ 302 1
49 NGC 4151 Sy1 12 10 32.5771747733 +39 24 21.057727323   12.18 11.48     ~ 3318 2
50 NGC 4228 SBG 12 15 39.174 +36 19 36.80 10.63 10.30 9.93 9.74   ~ 847 1
51 M 99 H2G 12 18 49.625 +14 24 59.36 10.45 10.44 9.87     ~ 740 2
52 M 106 Sy2 12 18 57.620 +47 18 13.39   9.14 8.41 8.11   ~ 2065 3
53 M 61 Sy2 12 21 54.9275149050 +04 28 25.588335799 10.07 10.18 9.65     ~ 853 2
54 M 100 AGN 12 22 54.9318850854 +15 49 20.294302163 10.04 10.05 9.35     ~ 1620 2
55 NGC 4395 Sy2 12 25 48.8639154223 +33 32 48.694684028 10.84 10.54 10.11 9.98   ~ 959 1
56 NGC 4487 GiG 12 31 04.4737580846 -08 03 14.545380600   11.7   11.9 11.6 ~ 145 0
57 NGC 4535 H2G 12 34 20.310 +08 11 51.94   11.1       ~ 506 0
58 M 91 LIN 12 35 26.430 +14 29 46.75   14.63 13.57     ~ 518 0
59 NGC 4507 Sy2 12 35 36.6328010225 -39 54 33.661858548   12.95 13.54 11.70 12.4 ~ 430 0
60 M 58 SyG 12 37 43.597 +11 49 05.12 10.80 10.48 9.66     ~ 956 2
61 NGC 4593 Sy1 12 39 39.4435521178 -05 20 39.035028119   13.95 13.15     ~ 920 0
62 NGC 4602 Sy2 12 40 36.848 -05 07 58.84   12.34   11.40 11.8 ~ 126 0
63 IC 3639 Sy2 12 40 52.8357581136 -36 45 21.046225445   13.01 13.50 11.87 12.7 ~ 223 1
64 NGC 4618 GiP 12 41 32.8926165605 +41 09 03.051998352 11.03 11.22 10.78     ~ 286 2
65 NGC 4639 GiP 12 42 52.3781396179 +13 15 26.712929286   13.62 12.72     ~ 549 0
66 NGC 4689 H2G 12 47 45.5568267764 +13 45 46.148221803   12.8       ~ 326 0
67 NGC 4699 GiG 12 49 02.186 -08 39 51.49   10.8   10.01 10.3 ~ 181 0
68 NGC 4725 Sy2 12 50 26.5692916552 +25 30 02.737610391   13.45 12.44     ~ 608 2
69 M 94 SyG 12 50 53.148 +41 07 12.55 9.15 8.96 8.24 7.78   ~ 1184 3
70 UGC 8024 GiC 12 54 05.248 +27 08 58.67 14.37 14.23 13.95 13.84   ~ 522 1
71 NGC 4939 Sy2 13 04 14.3281622249 -10 20 22.316482221   14.81 13.80 10.92   ~ 258 1
72 NGC 4995 GiG 13 09 40.653 -07 50 00.21   12   10.94   ~ 112 0
73 NGC 5033 Sy1 13 13 27.535 +36 35 37.14   11.01 12.03 9.73   ~ 784 3
74 UGC 8320 G 13 14 27.997 +45 55 11.14 13.63 13.26 13.02 12.81   ~ 229 0
75 M 51 GiP 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 3697 4
76 NGC 5248 GiG 13 37 32.069 +08 53 06.22   11.4       ~ 438 0
77 NGC 5247 GiG 13 38 03.0179394007 -17 53 02.635368748   10.77   9.96 10.5 ~ 197 0
78 NGC 5334 LSB 13 52 54.4632693594 -01 06 52.601149767   12.0   12.3 12.1 ~ 145 0
79 NGC 5390 LIN 13 55 40.023 +40 27 42.37   12.81 11.93 10.04   ~ 313 1
80 NGC 5364 GiP 13 56 12.004 +05 00 52.06   13.2       ~ 228 0
81 M 101 GiP 14 03 12.583 +54 20 55.50   8.46 7.86 7.76   ~ 2479 2
82 APG 271 IG 14 03 25.45 -06 02 59.9           ~ 206 0
83 NGC 5427 GiP 14 03 26.0408351752 -06 01 50.688001474   14.67 13.96 11.54   ~ 265 0
84 NGC 5474 GiP 14 05 01.608 +53 39 43.95   11.28 10.79     ~ 371 1
85 NGC 5643 Sy2 14 32 40.778 -44 10 28.60   11.03 13.60 9.92 10.6 ~ 429 0
86 NGC 5681 GiG 14 35 42.865 +08 18 01.81   14.3       ~ 26 0
87 NGC 5850 LIN 15 07 07.676 +01 32 39.41   11.5   10.79 11.1 ~ 270 1
88 NGC 5921 G 15 21 56.561 +05 04 13.94   12.7       ~ 247 0
89 NGC 5964 EmG 15 37 36.2079075769 +05 58 26.341551620   12.45 11.82 11.48 10.89 ~ 110 0
90 NGC 6070 G 16 09 58.685 +00 42 33.53   12.1   12.3 12.0 ~ 141 0
91 NGC 6140 G 16 20 58.162 +65 23 25.98   12.6       ~ 91 0
92 NGC 6118 EmG 16 21 48.622 -02 17 00.32   13.20   12.0 11.7 ~ 177 0
93 NGC 6221 Sy2 16 52 46.329 -59 13 00.99   10.90 13.45 9.68 10.4 ~ 272 0
94 NGC 6300 Sy2 17 16 59.473 -62 49 13.98   10.88 13.08 9.44 10.2 ~ 352 0
95 NGC 6384 G 17 32 24.302 +07 03 36.97   13.2       ~ 284 0
96 NGC 6814 Sy1 19 42 40.5857305428 -10 19 25.102133898   15.33 14.21 11.7 11.3 ~ 703 0
97 NGC 6946 H2G 20 34 52.332 +60 09 13.24   10.5       ~ 2190 2
98 NGC 7314 Sy1 22 35 46.1969940596 -26 03 01.574026329   11.62 13.11 10.61 11.4 ~ 494 0
99 NGC 7331 LIN 22 37 04.102 +34 24 57.31 10.65 10.35 9.48     ~ 1086 2
100 NGC 7479 Sy2 23 04 56.668 +12 19 22.36 11.74 11.60 10.85 10.47 9.66 ~ 653 2
101 NGC 7552 GiP 23 16 10.767 -42 35 05.39 11.34 11.22 10.57 10.08 11.1 ~ 493 3
102 NGC 7590 GiP 23 18 54.836 -42 14 20.64   12.12 13.76 11.06 11.8 ~ 252 1
103 NGC 7741 GiP 23 43 54.375 +26 04 32.07 11.70 11.84 11.31     ~ 264 1

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2019.12.16-05:52:08

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