Astrophys. J., 692, 973-997 (2009/February-3)
Properties of the youngest protostars in Perseus, Serpens, and Ophiuchus.
ENOCH M.L., EVANS N.J., SARGENT A.I. and GLENN J.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present an unbiased census of deeply embedded protostars in Perseus, Serpens, and Ophiuchus, assembled by combining large-scale 1.1 mm Bolocam continuum and Spitzer Legacy surveys. We identify protostellar candidates based on their mid-infrared (mid-IR) properties, correlate their positions with 1.1 mm core positions from Enoch et al. in 2006 and 2007, and Young et al. in 2006, and construct well-sampled spectral energy distributions using our extensive wavelength coverage (λ = 1.25-1100 µm). Source classification based on the bolometric temperature yields a total of 39 Class 0 and 89 Class I sources in the three-cloud sample. We compare to protostellar evolutionary models using the bolometric temperature-luminosity diagram, finding a population of low-luminosity Class I sources that are inconsistent with constant or monotonically decreasing mass accretion rates. This result argues strongly for episodic accretion during the Class I phase, with more than 50% of sources in a "sub-Shu" (dM/dt < 10–6 M☉/yr) accretion state. Average spectra are compared to protostellar radiative transfer models, which match the observed spectra fairly well in Stage 0, but predict too much near-IR and too little mid-IR flux in Stage I. Finally, the relative number of Class 0 and Class I sources is used to estimate the lifetime of the Class 0 phase; the three-cloud average yields a Class 0 lifetime of 1.7 ±0.3x105 yr, ruling out an extremely rapid early accretion phase. Correcting photometry for extinction results in a somewhat shorter lifetime (1.1x105 yr). In Ophiuchus, however, we find very few Class 0 sources (N_ Class 0/N Class I_∼ 0.1-0.2), similar to previous studies of that cloud. The observations suggest a consistent picture of nearly constant average accretion rate through the entire embedded phase, with accretion becoming episodic by at least the Class I stage, and possibly earlier.
infrared: ISM - ISM: clouds - ISM: individual (Perseus, Serpens, Ophiuchus) - stars: formation - submillimeter
VizieR on-line data:
<Available at CDS (J/ApJ/692/973): table2.dat table3.dat table4.dat table5.dat>
Tables 2-4: [EES2009] Per-emb NN (Nos 1-66), [EES2009] Ser-emb NN (Nos 1-34), [EES2009] Oph-emb NN (Nos 1-28).
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