Astrophys. J., 695, 94-100 (2009/April-2)
The nature of carbon dioxide bearing ices in quiescent molecular clouds.
WHITTET D.C.B., COOK A.M., CHIAR J.E., PENDLETON Y.J., SHENOY S.S. and GERAKINES P.A.
Abstract (from CDS):
The properties of the ices that form in dense molecular clouds represent an important set of initial conditions in the evolution of interstellar and preplanetary matter in regions of active star formation. Of the various spectral features available for study, the bending mode of solid CO2 near 15 µm has proven to be a particularly sensitive probe of physical conditions, especially temperature. We present new observations of this absorption feature in the spectrum of Q21-1, a background field star located behind a dark filament in the Cocoon Nebula (IC 5146). We show the profile of the feature to be consistent with a two-component (polar + nonpolar) model for the ices, based on spectra of laboratory analogs with temperatures in the range 10-20 K. The polar component accounts for ∼85% of the CO2 in the line of sight. We compare for the first time 15 µm profiles in three widely separated dark clouds (Taurus, Serpens, and IC 5146), and show that they are indistinguishable to within observational scatter. Systematic differences in the observed CO2/H2O ratio in the three clouds have little or no effect on the 15 µm profile. The abundance of elemental oxygen in the ices appears to be a unifying factor, displaying consistent behavior in the three clouds. We conclude that the ice formation process is robust and uniformly efficient, notwithstanding compositional variations arising from differences in how the O is distributed between the primary species (H2O, CO2, and CO) in the ices.
dust, extinction - infrared: ISM - ISM: lines and bands - ISM: molecules
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