Astrophys. J., 702, 1507-1529 (2009/September-2)
Mid-infrared variability of protostars in IC 1396A.
MORALES-CALDERON M., STAUFFER J.R., REBULL L., WHITNEY B.A., BARRADO Y NAVASCUES D., ARDILA D.R., SONG I., BROOKE T.Y., HARTMANN L. and CALVET N.
Abstract (from CDS):
We have used Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) to conduct a photometric monitoring program of the IC1396A dark globule in order to study the mid-IR (3.6-8 µm) variability of the heavily embedded young stellar objects (YSOs) present in that area. We obtained light curves covering a 14 day timespan with a twice daily cadence for 69 YSOs, and continuous light curves with approximately 12 s cadence over 7 hr for 38 YSOs. Typical accuracies for our relative photometry were 1%-2% for the long timespan data and a few millimagnitude, corresponding to less than 0.5%, for the 7 hr continuous "staring-mode" data. More than half of the YSOs showed detectable variability, with amplitudes from ∼0.05 mag to ∼0.2 mag. About 30% of the YSOs showed quasi-sinusoidal light-curve shapes with apparent periods from 5 to 12 days and light-curve amplitudes approximately independent of wavelength over the IRAC bandpasses. We have constructed models which simulate the time-dependent spectral energy distributions of Class I and II YSOs in order to attempt to explain these light curves. Based on these models, the apparently periodic light curves are best explained by YSO models where one or two high-latitude photospheric spots heat the inner wall of the circumstellar disk, and where we view the disk at fairly large inclination angle. Disk inhomogeneities, such as increasing the height where the accretion funnel flows to the stellar hot spot, enhances the light-curve modulations. The other YSOs in our sample show a range of light-curve shapes, some of which are probably due to varying accretion rate or disk shadowing events. One star, IC1396A-47, shows a 3.5 hr periodic light curve; this object may be a PMS Delta Scuti star.
infrared: stars - stars: pre-main sequence - stars: variables: other
VizieR on-line data:
<Available at CDS (J/ApJ/702/1507): table1 table2 table3 table6>
Table 2: [MSR2009] IC1396A-NN (Nos 1-74). Table 6: [MSR2009] NNNN N=46 among (Nos 347-8689).
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