2009ApJS..182..216K


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.05.25CEST00:25:14

2009ApJS..182..216K - Astrophys. J., Suppl. Ser., 182, 216-309 (2009/May-0)

Structure and formation of elliptical and spheroidal galaxies.

KORMENDY J., FISHER D.B., CORNELL M.E. and BENDER R.

Abstract (from CDS):

New surface photometry of all known elliptical galaxies in the Virgo cluster is combined with published data to derive composite profiles of brightness, ellipticity, position angle, isophote shape, and color over large radius ranges. These provide enough leverage to show that Sérsic log I ∝ r 1/n functions fit the brightness profiles I(r) of nearly all ellipticals remarkably well over large dynamic ranges. Therefore, we can confidently identify departures from these profiles that are diagnostic of galaxy formation. Two kinds of departures are seen at small radii. All 10 of our ellipticals with total absolute magnitudes MVT≤ -21.66 have cuspy cores–"missing light"–at small radii. Cores are well known and naturally scoured by binary black holes (BHs) formed in dissipationless ("dry") mergers. All 17 ellipticals with -21.54 ≤ MVT≤ -15.53 do not have cores. We find a new distinct component in these galaxies: all coreless ellipticals in our sample have extra light at the center above the inward extrapolation of the outer Sérsic profile. In large ellipticals, the excess light is spatially resolved and resembles the central components predicted in numerical simulations of mergers of galaxies that contain gas. In the simulations, the gas dissipates, falls toward the center, undergoes a starburst, and builds a compact stellar component that, as in our observations, is distinct from the Sérsic-function main body of the elliptical. But ellipticals with extra light also contain supermassive BHs. We suggest that the starburst has swamped core scouring by binary BHs. That is, we interpret extra light components as a signature of formation in dissipative ("wet") mergers.

Besides extra light, we find three new aspects to the ("E-E") dichotomy into two types of elliptical galaxies. Core galaxies are known to be slowly rotating, to have relatively anisotropic velocity distributions, and to have boxy isophotes. We show that they have Sérsic indices n > 4 uncorrelated with MVT. They also are α-element enhanced, implying short star-formation timescales. And their stellar populations have a variety of ages but mostly are very old. Extra light ellipticals generally rotate rapidly, are more isotropic than core Es, and have disky isophotes. We show that they have n ≃ 3±1 almost uncorrelated with MVT and younger and less α-enhanced stellar populations. These are new clues to galaxy formation. We suggest that extra light ellipticals got their low Sérsic indices by forming in relatively few binary mergers, whereas giant ellipticals have n > 4 because they formed in larger numbers of mergers of more galaxies at once plus later heating during hierarchical clustering.

We confirm that core Es contain X-ray-emitting gas whereas extra light Es generally do not. This leads us to suggest why the E-E dichotomy arose. If energy feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) requires a "working surface" of hot gas, then this is present in core galaxies but absent in extra light galaxies. We suggest that AGN energy feedback is a strong function of galaxy mass: it is weak enough in small Es not to prevent merger starbursts but strong enough in giant Es and their progenitors to make dry mergers dry and to protect old stellar populations from late star formation.

Finally, we verify that there is a strong dichotomy between elliptical and spheroidal galaxies. Their properties are consistent with our understanding of their different formation processes: mergers for ellipticals and conversion of late-type galaxies into spheroidals by environmental effects and by energy feedback from supernovae.

In an appendix, we develop machinery to get realistic error estimates for Sérsic parameters even when they are strongly coupled. And we discuss photometric dynamic ranges necessary to get robust results from Sérsic fits.


Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD - galaxies: evolution - galaxies: formation - galaxies: nuclei - galaxies: photometry - galaxies: structure

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJS/182/216): galaxies.dat table3.dat>

Status at CDS:  

Simbad objects: 72

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Number of rows : 72

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 M 110 GiG 00 40 22.0544552438 +41 41 07.496294862   8.92 8.07     ~ 1205 1
2 M 32 IG 00 42 41.825 +40 51 54.61 9.51 9.03 8.08     ~ 2000 2
3 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 10838 1
4 NGC 315 LIN 00 57 48.88335 +30 21 08.8122 12.80 12.20 11.16 11.26   ~ 702 2
5 M 33 GiG 01 33 50.904 +30 39 35.79 6.17 6.27 5.72     ~ 5115 1
6 NGC 1042 GiP 02 40 23.9725496856 -08 26 00.749394900 11.47 11.56 11.02 11.7 11.4 ~ 219 1
7 ACO 426 ClG 03 19 47.2 +41 30 47           ~ 1930 1
8 NAME Carina dSph G 06 41 36.7 -50 57 58   22.14 11.0 19.47   ~ 985 0
9 ZwCl 0735+7421 ClG 07 41 40.3 +74 14 58     17.70     ~ 214 0
10 NGC 2682 OpC 08 51 18 +11 48.0           ~ 2021 0
11 ACO 780 ClG 09 18 30 -12 15.7           ~ 425 0
12 NGC 3115 GiG 10 05 13.978 -07 43 06.89   11   9.37   ~ 918 2
13 NGC 3377 GiP 10 47 42.400 +13 59 08.30 11.55 11.24 10.38     ~ 725 1
14 M 105 LIN 10 47 49.600 +12 34 53.87   10.56 9.76 9.12 8.18 ~ 1375 0
15 NGC 3605 GiG 11 16 46.622 +18 01 01.71   12.7       ~ 241 0
16 [VV2006] J111654.8+180304 QSO 11 16 54.657 +18 03 06.51   13.84 12.76     ~ 433 0
17 NGC 4125 GiP 12 08 06.017 +65 10 26.88 11.14 10.65 9.72     ~ 395 2
18 NGC 4261 LIN 12 19 23.2160630 +05 49 29.700024   13.92 12.87     ~ 1111 0
19 NGC 4318 GiG 12 22 43.301 +08 11 54.12   14.1       ~ 119 0
20 NGC 4365 GiG 12 24 28.228 +07 19 03.07   11.5       ~ 794 0
21 M 84 Sy2 12 25 03.74333 +12 53 13.1393 12.67 12.09 10.49     ~ 1630 2
22 M 85 GiP 12 25 24.053 +18 11 27.89   10.2       ~ 599 0
23 NGC 4387 GiG 12 25 41.6768872639 +12 48 37.809497625 13.42 13.01 12.12   10.87 ~ 367 1
24 NGC 4395 Sy2 12 25 48.8639154223 +33 32 48.694684028 10.84 10.54 10.11 9.98   ~ 982 1
25 M 86 GiG 12 26 11.814 +12 56 45.49 10.32 9.83 8.90   7.50 ~ 1008 1
26 NAME Vir I ClG 12 26 32.1 +12 43 24   10.00 8.49     ~ 5784 0
27 NGC 4415 GiG 12 26 40.4850067522 +08 26 08.578644376   14.2       ~ 92 0
28 NGC 4434 GiG 12 27 36.680 +08 09 15.52   13.2       ~ 230 0
29 NGC 4435 GiG 12 27 40.503 +13 04 44.48 12.23 11.74 10.80     ~ 411 2
30 NGC 4438 LIN 12 27 45.652 +13 00 30.92 11.37 11.02 10.17     ~ 576 3
31 IC 3381 LSB 12 28 14.854 +11 47 23.69   14.42       ~ 140 1
32 NGC 4458 GiP 12 28 57.532 +13 14 30.90 13.27 12.93 12.07     ~ 387 2
33 NGC 4459 H2G 12 29 00.026 +13 58 42.89   11.6       ~ 491 0
34 NGC 4461 GiP 12 29 03.010 +13 11 01.88 12.56 12.09 11.19     ~ 216 2
35 NGC 4464 GiG 12 29 21.313 +08 09 23.63   13.5       ~ 214 0
36 GRDG +12 52 GiC 12 29 23.5153719439 +12 27 02.898413946   16 15.29   14.16 ~ 84 0
37 NGC 4467 GiG 12 29 30.267 +07 59 34.62   15.2       ~ 159 0
38 2MASX J12293498+0803286 G 12 29 34.9891159342 +08 03 28.779877515           ~ 78 0
39 M 49 Sy2 12 29 46.798 +08 00 01.48   13.21 12.17     ~ 1952 2
40 NGC 4473 GiG 12 29 48.878 +13 25 45.55 11.60 11.16 10.20     ~ 597 1
41 NGC 4482 GiG 12 30 10.3250399673 +10 46 46.084712572   14.2       ~ 148 0
42 NGC 4478 GiP 12 30 17.439 +12 19 42.88 12.82 12.36 11.45   10.17 ~ 469 1
43 UGCA 283 GiG 12 30 31.985 +12 29 24.85   14.5       ~ 380 0
44 M 87 BiC 12 30 49.42338230 +12 23 28.0438581 10.16 9.59 8.63   7.49 ~ 6162 3
45 NGC 4489 GiG 12 30 52.240 +16 45 31.31   13.2       ~ 240 0
46 UGC 7658 GiG 12 30 57.730 +12 16 13.30   11.2       ~ 208 0
47 IC 3442 GiG 12 31 20.1847539251 +14 06 54.716926859   15.4       ~ 91 0
48 IC 3461 GiG 12 32 02.747 +11 53 23.16   15.4 14.88   13.3 ~ 117 0
49 IC 3470 GiP 12 32 23.353 +11 15 47.56   15.0       ~ 103 0
50 IC 798 GiG 12 32 33.398 +15 24 55.78   15.3       ~ 89 0
51 NGC 4515 GiG 12 33 04.944 +16 15 55.76   13.3       ~ 133 0
52 IC 3490 GiC 12 33 13.902 +10 55 42.73   15.6       ~ 69 0
53 IC 3509 GiG 12 34 11.565 +12 02 55.89   15.3       ~ 99 0
54 2MASX J12353723+1222554 GiP 12 35 37.2509396284 +12 22 55.233540771   15.41       ~ 83 0
55 NGC 4551 GiP 12 35 37.980 +12 15 50.44 13.49 12.97 12.02     ~ 330 1
56 M 89 LIN 12 35 39.8 +12 33 23 11.29 10.73 9.75     ~ 920 2
57 NGC 4564 GiG 12 36 26.994 +11 26 21.55 12.51 12.05 11.12     ~ 559 1
58 NGC 4570 GiG 12 36 53.401 +07 14 47.99   11.8       ~ 309 0
59 IC 3635 GiG 12 40 13.334 +12 52 29.98   15.5       ~ 69 0
60 IC 3653 GiG 12 41 15.721 +11 23 13.85   14.7       ~ 102 0
61 M 59 GiG 12 42 02.322 +11 38 48.95   11.0       ~ 653 0
62 IC 3672 GiG 12 42 08.6669706774 +11 45 15.437359667   15.1       ~ 98 0
63 NGC 4636 LIN 12 42 49.867 +02 41 16.01   12.62 11.84     ~ 1036 1
64 M 60 GiP 12 43 40.008 +11 33 09.40   10.3       ~ 1246 0
65 NGC 4660 GiP 12 44 31.9848549289 +11 11 25.730688043   12.1       ~ 395 0
66 NGC 5322 SyG 13 49 15.24 +60 11 25.8   11.3       ~ 380 2
67 MCG+00-38-026 GiP 15 06 29.199 +01 35 41.55   14.1 13.37 13.07 12.1 ~ 106 0
68 ACO 2052 ClG 15 16 45.5 +07 00 01           ~ 671 1
69 NGC 6482 GiG 17 51 48.8334002678 +23 04 18.884647281 12.71 12.35 11.45     ~ 189 1
70 HD 172401 SB* 18 39 39.6821226968 +08 43 58.123824760   8.08 7.01     K0III 25 0
71 * eta Cyg * 19 56 18.3722223 +35 05 00.322759 5.800 4.910 3.880 3.19 2.66 K0III 269 0
72 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 6912 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.05.25-00:25:14

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