2009MNRAS.397.1836G


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.07.05CEST07:36:32

2009MNRAS.397.1836G - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 397, 1836-1851 (2009/August-3)

The ultraluminous state.

GLADSTONE J.C., ROBERTS T.P. and DONE C.

Abstract (from CDS):

We revisit the question of the nature of ultraluminous X-ray sources (ULXs) through a detailed investigation of their spectral shape, using the highest quality X-ray data available in the XMM-Newton public archives (≳10000 counts in their EPIC spectrum). We confirm that simple spectral models commonly used for the analysis and interpretation of ULXs (power-law continuum and multicolour disc blackbody models) are inadequate in the face of such high-quality data. Instead we find two near ubiquitous features in the spectrum: a soft excess and a rollover in the spectrum at energies above 3 keV. We investigate a range of more physical models to describe these data. Slim discs which include radiation trapping (approximated by a p-free disc model) do not adequately fit the data, and several objects give unphysically high disc temperatures (kTin> 3keV). Instead, disc plus Comptonized corona models fit the data well, but the derived corona is cool and optically thick (τ ∼ 5-30). This is unlike the τ ∼ 1 coronae seen in Galactic binaries, ruling out models where ULXs are powered by sub-Eddington accretion on to an intermediate-mass black hole despite many objects having apparently cool disc temperatures. We argue that these observed disc temperatures are not a good indicator of the black hole mass as the powerful, optically thick corona drains energy from the inner disc and obscures it. We estimate the intrinsic (corona-less) disc temperature, and demonstrate that in most cases it lies in the regime of stellar mass black holes. These objects have spectra which range from those similar to the highest mass accretion rate states in Galactic binaries (a single peak at 2-3 keV) to those which clearly have two peaks, one at energies below 1 keV (from the outer, un-Comptonized disc) and one above 3 keV (from the Comptonized, inner disc). However, a few ULXs have a significantly cooler corrected disc temperature; we suggest that these are the most extreme stellar mass black hole accretors, in which a massive wind completely envelopes the inner-disc regions, creating a cool photosphere. We conclude that ULXs provide us with an observational template for the transition between Eddington and super-Eddington accretion flows, with the latter occupying a new ultraluminous accretion state.

Abstract Copyright: © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 RAS

Journal keyword(s): accretion, accretion discs - black hole physics - X-rays: binaries - X-rays: galaxies

Simbad objects: 22

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Number of rows : 22

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 [BWE2015] NGC 55 119 ULX 00 15 28.89 -39 13 18.8           ~ 39 0
2 NAME IC 10 X-1 HXB 00 20 29.09 +59 16 51.9           ~ 148 0
3 NAME Cartwheel G 00 37 41.107 -33 42 58.79   19.26   18.52   ~ 252 1
4 ChASeM33 J013350.89+303936.6 SNR 01 33 50.90 +30 39 36.6           ~ 86 1
5 2MASS J01365444-3509524 Sy1 01 36 54.4577149075 -35 09 52.330090067   18.80 18.0 17.80   ~ 42 0
6 RX J031820.3-662911 UX? 03 18 20.00 -66 29 10.9           ~ 169 1
7 2E 756 ULX 03 18 22.00 -66 36 04.3   23.5 23.6     O9.5 187 3
8 [SST2011] J034555.61+680455.3 ULX 03 45 55.612 +68 04 55.29           ~ 140 1
9 X LMC X-3 HXB 05 38 56.6325045489 -64 05 03.321118015   17 17.2     B2.5Ve 630 0
10 [FK2005] 6 ULX 07 36 25.55 +65 35 40.0           ~ 37 0
11 [SST2011] J081929.00+704219.3 ULX 08 19 28.99 +70 42 19.4           ~ 157 2
12 [FK2005] 7 SNR 09 55 32.95 +69 00 33.6   23.87 23.89     ~ 79 1
13 RX J0957.9+6903 ULX 09 57 53.290 +69 03 48.20           ~ 198 4
14 7C 103144.10+395402.00 Sy1 10 34 38.5975589813 +39 38 28.181434249   17.37 16.90     ~ 303 1
15 RX J123551+27561 ULX 12 35 51.71 +27 56 04.1           ~ 60 1
16 [FK2005] 23 ULX 13 29 38.62 +58 25 05.6           ~ 109 2
17 [FK2005] 25 ULX 14 03 19.63 -41 22 58.7           ~ 196 0
18 V* V381 Nor HXB 15 50 58.6520652623 -56 28 35.309070422   17.95 16.6     K3III 1021 0
19 V* V1033 Sco HXB 16 54 00.137 -39 50 44.90   15.20 14.2 16.14   F5IV 1699 1
20 [KRL2007b] 312 LXB 18 17 43.537 -33 01 07.80           ~ 138 0
21 SS 433 HXB 19 11 49.5645897701 +04 58 57.824087535   16.3 13.0     A7Ib: 1928 3
22 Granat 1915+105 LXB 19 15 11.54938 +10 56 44.7585           ~ 2281 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.07.05-07:36:32

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