Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 511, A44-44 (2010/2-2)
The chemical composition of TS 01, the most oxygen-deficient planetary nebula. AGB nucleosynthesis in a metal-poor binary star.
STASINSKA G., MORISSET C., TOVMASSIAN G., RAUCH T., RICHER M.G., PENA M., SZCZERBA R., DECRESSIN T., CHARBONNEL C., YUNGELSON L., NAPIWOTZKI R., SIMON-DIAZ S. and JAMET L.
Abstract (from CDS):
The planetary nebula TS01 (also called PNG135.9+55.9 or SBS1150+599A) with its record-holding low oxygen abundance and its double degenerate close binary core (period 3.9h) is an exceptional object located in the Galactic halo. We have secured observational data in a complete wavelength range to pin down the abundances of half a dozen elements in the nebula. The abundances are obtained via detailed photoionization modelling which takes into account all the observational constraints (including geometry and aperture effects) using the pseudo-3D photoionization code Cloudy_3D. The spectral energy distribution of the ionizing radiation is taken from appropriate model atmospheres. Incidentally we find from the new observational constraints that both stellar components contribute to the ionization: the ``cool'' one provides the bulk of hydrogen ionization, while the ``hot'' one is responsible for the presence of the most highly charged ions, which explains why previous attempts to model the nebula experienced difficulties. The nebular abundances of C, N, O, and Ne are found to be 1/3.5, 1/4.2, 1/70, and 1/11 of the solar value respectively, with uncertainties of a factor 2. Thus the extreme O deficiency of this object is confirmed. The abundances of S and Ar are less than 1/30 of solar. The abundance of He relative to H is 0.089±0.009. Standard models of stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis cannot explain the abundance pattern observed in the nebula. To obtain an extreme oxygen deficiency in a star whose progenitor has an initial mass of about 1M☉ requires an additional mixing process, which can be induced by stellar rotation and/or by the presence of the close companion. We have computed a stellar model with an initial mass of 1M☉, appropriate metallicity, and initial rotation of 100km/s, and find that rotation greatly improves the agreement between the predicted and observed abundances.
planetary nebulae: individual: TS 01 - ISM: abundances - stars: AGB and post-AGB - binaries: general - nuclear reactions, nucleosynthesis, abundances
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