SIMBAD references

2010A&A...521A..57T - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 521, A57-57 (2010/10-1)

Evidence for ultra-fast outflows in radio-quiet AGNs. I. Detection and statistical incidence of FeK-shell absorption lines.

TOMBESI F., CAPPI M., REEVES J.N., PALUMBO G.G.C., YAQOOB T., BRAITO V. and DADINA M.

Abstract (from CDS):

Blue-shifted FeK absorption lines have been detected in recent years between 7 and 10 keV in theX-ray spectra of several radio-quiet AGNs. The derived blue-shifted velocities of the lines can often reach mildly relativistic values, up to 0.2-0.4c. These findings are important because they suggest the presence of a previously unknown massive and highly ionized absorbing material outflowing from their nuclei, possibly connected with accretion disk winds/outflows. The scope of the present work is to statistically quantify the parameters and incidence of the blue-shifted FeK absorption lines through a uniform analysis on a large sample of radio-quiet AGNs. This allows us to assess their global detection significance and to overcome any possible publication bias. We performed a blind search for narrow absorption features at energies greater than 6.4 keV in a sample of 42 radio-quiet AGNs observed with XMM-Newton. A simple uniform model composed by an absorbed power-law plus Gaussian emission and absorption lines provided a good fit for all the data sets. We derived the absorption lines parameters and calculated their detailed detection significance making use of the classical F-test and extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We detect 36 narrow absorption lines on a total of 101 XMM-Newton EPIC pn observations. The number of absorption lines at rest-frame energies higher than 7keV is 22. Their global probability to be generated by random fluctuations is very low, less than 3x10–8, and their detection have been independently confirmed by a spectral analysis of the MOS data, with associated random probability <10–7. We identify the lines as FeXXV and FeXXVI K-shell resonant absorption. They are systematically blue-shifted, with a velocity distribution ranging from zero up to ∼0.3c, with a peak and mean value at ∼0.1c. We detect variability of the lines on both EWs and blue-shifted velocities among different XMM-Newton observations even on time-scales as short as a few days, possibly suggesting somewhat compact absorbers. Moreover, we find no significant correlation between the cosmological red-shifts of the sources and the lines blue-shifted velocities, ruling out any systematic contamination by local absorption. If we define ultra-fast outflows (UFOs) those highly ionized absorbers with outflow velocities higher than 104km/s, then the majority of the lines are consistent with being associated to UFOs and the fraction of objects with detected UFOs in the whole sample is at least ∼35%. This fraction is similar for type 1 and type 2 sources. The global covering fraction of the absorbers is consequently estimated to be in the range C∼0.4-0.6, thereby implying large opening angles. From our systematicX-ray spectral analysis on a large sample of radio-quiet AGNs we have been able to clearly assess the global veracity of the blue-shifted FeK absorption lines at E>7keV and to overcome their publication bias. These lines indicate that UFOs are a rather common phenomenon observable in the central regions of these sources and they are probably the direct signature of AGN accretion disk winds/ejecta. The detailed photo-ionization modeling of these absorbers is presented in a companion paper.

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Journal keyword(s): black hole physics - X-ray: galaxies - galaxies: Seyfert - line: identification

Simbad objects: 42

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2020.11.29-15:04:08

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