2010A&A...523A...6D


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.01.29CET22:12:03

2010A&A...523A...6D - Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 523, A6-6 (2010/11-2)

A gallery of bubbles. The nature of the bubbles observed by Spitzer and what ATLASGAL tells us about the surrounding neutral material.

DEHARVENG L., SCHULLER F., ANDERSON L.D., ZAVAGNO A., WYROWSKI F., MENTEN K.M., BRONFMAN L., TESTI L., WALMSLEY C.M. and WIENEN M.

Abstract (from CDS):

This study deals with infrared bubbles, the HII regions they enclose, and triggered massive-star formation on their borders. We attempt to determine the nature of the bubbles observed by Spitzer in the Galactic plane, mainly to establish if possible their association with massive stars. We take advantage of the very simple morphology of these objects to search for star formation triggered by HII regions, and to estimate the importance of this mode of star formation. We consider a sample of 102 bubbles detected by Spitzer-GLIMPSE, and catalogued by Churchwell et al. (2006ApJ...649..759C; hereafter CH06). We use mid-infrared and radio-continuum public data (respectively the Spitzer-GLIMPSE and -MIPSGAL surveys and the MAGPIS and VGPS surveys) to discuss their nature. We use the ATLASGAL survey at 870µm to search for dense neutral material collected on their borders. The 870µm data traces the distribution of cold dust, thus of the dense neutral material where stars may form. We find that 86% of the bubbles contain ionized gas detected by means of its radio-continuum emission at 20-cm. Thus, most of the bubbles observed at 8.0µm enclose HII regions ionized by O-B2 stars. This finding differs from the earlier CH06 results (∼25% of the bubbles enclosing HII regions). Ninety-eight percent of the bubbles exhibit 24µm emission in their central regions. The ionized regions at the center of the 8.0µm bubbles seem to be devoid of PAHs but contain hot dust. PAH emission at 8.0µm is observed in the direction of the photodissociation regions surrounding the ionized gas. Among the 65 regions for which the angular resolution of the observations is high enough to resolve the spatial distribution of cold dust at 870µm, we find that 40% are surrounded by cold dust, and that another 28% contain interacting condensations. The former are good candidates for the collect and collapse process, as they display an accumulation of dense material at their borders. The latter are good candidates for the compression of pre-existing condensations by the ionized gas. Thirteen bubbles exhibit associated ultracompact HII regions in the direction of dust condensations adjacent to their ionization fronts. Another five show methanol masers in similar condensations. Our results suggest that more than a quarter of the bubbles may have triggered the formation of massive objects. Therefore, star formation triggered by HII regions may be an important process, especially for massive-star formation.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): stars: formation - stars: early-type - ISM: bubbles - HII regions

Simbad objects: 127

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Number of rows : 127

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 NAME W 3 OH HII 02 27 04.1 +61 52 22           ~ 935 2
2 NAME Trapezium Cluster As* 05 35 16.5 -05 23 14           ~ 1442 1
3 M 42 HII 05 35 17.3 -05 23 28           ~ 3683 0
4 NAME Orion Bright Bar reg 05 35 22.30 -05 24 33.0           ~ 701 0
5 * tet02 Ori A SB* 05 35 22.9022511214 -05 24 57.817182421 5.37 6.30 6.39 6.30 6.35 O9.5IVp 490 0
6 NAME Horsehead Nebula DNe 05 40 59.0 -02 27 30           ~ 436 0
7 SH 2-257 HII 06 12 44 +17 59.3           ~ 119 1
8 NAME Rosette Nebula HII 06 31 40 +04 57.8           ~ 435 1
9 NGC 3603 HII 11 15 24 -61 15.0           ~ 927 2
10 GRS G308.60 +00.60 HII 13 39.9 -61 45           ~ 90 0
11 RCW 82 HII 13 59.3 -61 27           ~ 29 0
12 Shk 255 GrG 14 10.5 +32 16           ~ 4 0
13 SH 2-3 HII 17 12.4 -38 28           ~ 154 1
14 NAME Gal Center reg 17 45 40.04 -29 00 28.1           ~ 11198 0
15 [CPA2006] N4 bub 18 08 52.6 -18 16 07           ~ 18 0
16 [CPA2006] N1 HII 18 09 22.2 -20 14 11           ~ 6 2
17 [CPA2006] N3 bub 18 09 31.2 -18 43 20           ~ 3 0
18 W 31 SFR 18 10 28.6 -19 55 51           ~ 241 0
19 W 31c HII 18 10 29.1 -19 56 05           ~ 301 0
20 [CPA2006] N2 bub 18 11 03.3 -19 51 47           ~ 9 0
21 [CPA2006] N9 bub 18 13 48.9 -17 46 51           ~ 4 0
22 [CPA2006] N11 bub 18 14 01.3 -17 25 38           ~ 12 1
23 [CPA2006] N7 bub 18 14 04.0 -17 55 42           ~ 3 0
24 [CPA2006] N10 bub 18 14 06.2 -17 28 31           ~ 19 0
25 SNR G012.8-00.2 SFR 18 14 14.0 -17 55 50           ~ 214 0
26 [CPA2006] N8 bub 18 14 38.5 -17 58 57           ~ 5 0
27 [CPA2006] N6 bub 18 15 04.8 -18 22 24           ~ 12 0
28 [CPA2006] N12 bub 18 15 24.5 -17 01 32           ~ 8 0
29 [CPA2006] N13 bub 18 15 43.2 -16 52 38           ~ 6 0
30 [CPA2006] N14 HII 18 16 20.8 -16 50 45           ~ 24 0
31 SH 2-44 HII 18 16.5 -16 44           ~ 12 0
32 [CPA2006] N5 bub 18 16 59 -18 40.2           ~ 5 0
33 [CPA2006] N17 bub 18 17 39.1 -15 51 21           ~ 3 0
34 [CPA2006] N16 bub 18 17 40.9 -15 51 50           ~ 6 0
35 [CPA2006] N19 bub 18 18 46.3 -13 38 19           ~ 5 0
36 [CPA2006] N15 bub 18 20 05.4 -16 10 45           ~ 6 0
37 NGC 6618 OpC 18 20 47 -16 10.3           ~ 1468 0
38 [CPA2006] N18 bub 18 22 29 -14 35.7           ~ 7 0
39 SH 2-53 HII 18 25 16.3 -13 13 17           ~ 21 0
40 [CPA2006] N22 bub 18 25 17.1 -13 09 56           ~ 18 0
41 [CPA2006] N21 bub 18 25 31.8 -13 16 26           ~ 19 0
42 [CPA2006] N23 bub 18 25 51.7 -12 46 01           ~ 7 1
43 [CPA2006] N20 bub 18 26 02.4 -13 38 48           ~ 10 1
44 [CPA2006] N24 bub 18 26 35.4 -12 36 06           ~ 9 0
45 [CPA2006] N26 bub 18 26 55.2 -11 52 32           ~ 4 0
46 [CPA2006] N27 bub 18 27 06.6 -11 38 42           ~ 6 1
47 [CPA2006] N25 bub 18 27 16.5 -12 00 55           ~ 7 1
48 [CPA2006] N28 bub 18 30 34.6 -10 21 15           ~ 5 0
49 [CPA2006] N29 bub 18 31 16 -08 31.4           ~ 5 0
50 [CPA2006] N30 bub 18 31 22 -08 28.0           ~ 5 0
51 [CPA2006] N31 bub 18 34 23.8 -08 02 16           ~ 6 1
52 [CPA2006] N32 bub 18 34 37 -07 59.7           ~ 8 0
53 [CPA2006] N35 bub 18 35 08 -07 22.6           ~ 12 0
54 [CPA2006] N33 bub 18 35 35.4 -07 46 11           ~ 7 0
55 GAL 024.81+00.10 HII 18 36 10 -07 11.2           ~ 8 0
56 [CPA2006] N34 bub 18 36 12.0 -07 45 29           ~ 7 0
57 [CPA2006] N36 bub 18 36 15.3 -07 09 13           ~ 13 0
58 [CPA2006] N37 bub 18 36 23 -06 39.6           ~ 17 0
59 [CPA2006] N38 bub 18 38 04 -06 48.3           ~ 2 0
60 [CPA2006] N39 bub 18 38 09 -06 48.3           ~ 8 0
61 [CPA2006] N41 bub 18 38 13.4 -05 48 19           ~ 4 0
62 [CPA2006] N40 bub 18 38 52.3 -06 53 33           ~ 6 0
63 [CPA2006] N44 bub 18 38 53.6 -05 15 36           ~ 9 0
64 [CPA2006] N43 bub 18 39 29.5 -05 35 41           ~ 7 0
65 [CPA2006] N42 bub 18 39 35.9 -05 54 19           ~ 7 1
66 [CPA2006] N45 bub 18 40 46.2 -05 18 43           ~ 7 0
67 [CPA2006] N46 bub 18 41 32.6 -05 03 53           ~ 8 0
68 [CPA2006] N48 bub 18 42 28.1 -04 01 50           ~ 5 0
69 [CPA2006] N47 bub 18 42 35.6 -04 22 42           ~ 8 0
70 [CPA2006] N50 bub 18 43 54.9 -03 27 10           ~ 9 1
71 [L89b] 28.823-00.226 HII 18 44 44.3 -03 45 34           ~ 66 0
72 [CPA2006] N51 bub 18 45 28.8 -03 28 40           ~ 10 0
73 [CPA2006] N54 bub 18 47 09.4 -01 27 26           ~ 10 0
74 [CPA2006] N52 bub 18 47 31 -01 57.1           ~ 10 0
75 SNR G030.8-00.0 SNR 18 47 32 -01 56.5           ~ 429 0
76 [CUS2014] G030.7016-0.0672 cor 18 47 36.6 -02 00 54           ~ 44 0
77 JCMTSE J184738.3-015744 smm 18 47 38.3 -01 57 44           ~ 11 0
78 [MSL2003] W43-MM3 smm 18 47 41.7 -02 00 26           ~ 8 0
79 [MSL2003] W43-MM1 cor 18 47 47.0 -01 54 28           ~ 88 0
80 [CPA2006] N53 bub 18 48 43.2 -01 38 38           ~ 7 1
81 [CPA2006] N55 bub 18 49 36 -00 42.0           ~ 8 0
82 [CPA2006] N56 bub 18 50 46.9 -00 18 25           ~ 10 1
83 [CPA2006] N58 bub 18 51 24 +00 04.2           ~ 3 0
84 [SPK2012] MWP1G032762-001495 bub 18 51 39.5 -00 13 09           ~ 8 1
85 [CPA2006] N59 bub 18 52 02.3 +00 04 34           ~ 7 0
86 [CPA2006] N61 bub 18 53 10 +01 09.2           ~ 10 0
87 [CPA2006] N62 bub 18 53 14 +01 20.8           ~ 13 1
88 [CPA2006] N60 bub 18 53 34.8 +00 43 05           ~ 7 1
89 [CPA2006] N65 bub 18 54 02.0 +01 59 30           ~ 14 0
90 [CPA2006] N69 bub 18 55 04 +03 11.5           ~ 4 0
91 [CPA2006] N66 bub 18 55 16 +02 07.5           ~ 5 1
92 [CPA2006] N63 bub 18 56 03 +01 20.6           ~ 3 0
93 [CPA2006] N67 bub 18 56 09.5 +02 19 50           ~ 8 1
94 SNR G034.6-00.5 SNR 18 56 10.650 +01 13 21.30           ~ 804 2
95 AGAL G035.579-00.031 cor 18 56 22.6865 +02 20 19.057           ~ 26 0
96 [SPK2012] MWP1G035652-000348 bub 18 56 31.6 +02 24 17           ~ 11 0
97 [CPA2006] N64 bub 18 57 08.8 +01 18 54           ~ 6 0
98 [CPA2006] N70 bub 19 00 38.2 +04 14 15           ~ 8 0
99 [CPA2006] N71 bub 19 01 13 +04 46.2           ~ 6 0
100 [CPA2006] N72 bub 19 01 49 +04 45.7           ~ 9 0
101 [CPA2006] N73 bub 19 02 33.2 +05 06 15           ~ 9 1
102 IRAS 19012+0505 mul 19 03 43.5 +05 09 49           ~ 30 0
103 [CPA2006] N75 HII 19 03 47.1 +05 09 27           ~ 38 0
104 GAL 038.91-00.44 bub 19 03 56.1 +05 06 53           ~ 16 0
105 [CPA2006] N76 bub 19 05 05.5 +05 01 40           ~ 3 0
106 [CPA2006] N77 bub 19 05 20.1 +06 38 19           ~ 8 0
107 [CPA2006] N78 bub 19 06 03.0 +07 27 24           ~ 8 0
108 [CPA2006] N79 bub 19 07 03.7 +07 39 12           ~ 11 0
109 [CPA2006] N80 HII 19 07 51.20 +08 00 33.0           ~ 18 0
110 [SPK2012] MWP1G042112-004451 bub 19 09 53.5 +07 57 28           ~ 6 0
111 [CPA2006] N81 bub 19 09 57.4 +07 48 55           ~ 5 0
112 [CPA2006] N87 bub 19 09 58.1 +09 11 40           ~ 3 0
113 [CPA2006] N85 bub 19 10 09 +09 00.5           ~ 2 0
114 [CPA2006] N84 bub 19 10 12.6 +08 43 50           ~ 7 0
115 [CPA2006] N86 bub 19 10 16.4 +09 01 08           ~ 3 0
116 [CPA2006] N82 bub 19 10 30.8 +07 52 06           ~ 10 0
117 [CPA2006] N89 bub 19 10 54.4 +09 39 21           ~ 11 0
118 [CPA2006] N88 bub 19 11 07.4 +09 06 04           ~ 5 0
119 [CPA2006] N90 bub 19 11 11.1 +09 39 59           ~ 15 1
120 [ABJ2009] U44.26+0.10 HII 19 11 57.7 +10 07 05           ~ 17 0
121 [CPA2006] N94 bub 19 15 06.5 +10 19 48           ~ 5 0
122 [CPA2006] N93 bub 19 15 16.0 +10 16 16           ~ 5 0
123 [DIB2012] G44.34-0.82 bub 19 15 28.1 +09 44 24           ~ 10 1
124 [CPA2006] N96 bub 19 16 04.3 +12 37 13           ~ 7 1
125 [CPA2006] N97 bub 19 16 17 +12 35.8           ~ 3 0
126 [CPA2006] N98 bub 19 16 46.2 +12 37 20           ~ 11 1
127 [CPA2006] N95 bub 19 17 01.2 +10 44 01           ~ 9 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.01.29-22:12:03

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