2010ApJ...724..748H


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.03.05CET17:35:42

2010ApJ...724..748H - Astrophys. J., 724, 748-761 (2010/November-3)

Abundances of Galactic anticenter planetary nebulae and the oxygen abundance gradient in the Galactic disk.

HENRY R.B.C., KWITTER K.B., JASKOT A.E., BALICK B., MORRISON M.A. and MILINGO J.B.

Abstract (from CDS):

We have obtained spectrophotometric observations of 41 anticenter planetary nebulae (PNe) located in the disk of the Milky Way. Electron temperatures and densities, as well as chemical abundances for He, N, O, Ne, S, Cl, and Ar were determined. Incorporating these results into our existing database of PN abundances yielded a sample of 124 well-observed objects with homogeneously determined abundances extending from 0.9 to 21 kpc in galactocentric distance. We performed a detailed regression analysis which accounted for uncertainties in both oxygen abundances and radial distances in order to establish the metallicity gradient across the disk to be 12 + log(O/H) = (9.09±0.05) - (0.058±0.006)xRg, with Rg in kpc. While we see some evidence that the gradient steepens at large galactocentric distances, more objects toward the anticenter need to be observed in order to confidently establish the true form of the metallicity gradient. We find no compelling evidence that the gradient differs between Peimbert Types I and II, nor is oxygen abundance related to the vertical distance from the galactic plane. Our gradient agrees well with analogous results for H II regions but is steeper than the one recently published by Stanghellini & Haywood over a similar range in galactocentric distance. A second analysis using PN distances from a different source implied a flatter gradient, and we suggest that we have reached a confusion limit which can only be resolved with greatly improved distance measurements and an understanding of the natural scatter in oxygen abundances.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): Galaxy: abundances - Galaxy: evolution - ISM: abundances - planetary nebulae: general

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJ/724/748): pn.dat table2.dat table3.dat table4.dat table5.dat table6.dat>

Simbad objects: 146

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Number of rows : 146

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 PN BV 2 PN 00 40 21.614 +62 51 34.28     21.5     ~ 32 0
2 PN A66 2 PN 00 45 34.678 +57 57 34.88           ~ 59 0
3 PN K 3-90 PN 01 24 58.6149768372 +65 38 36.096934863           ~ 41 0
4 M 76 PN 01 42 19.6604707683 +51 34 31.553132974     17.48   17.69 DOZ 359 2
5 PN G131.4-05.4 PN 01 53 03.432 +56 24 17.11   10.3 10.3     ~ 31 0
6 IC 1747 PN 01 57 35.6899343319 +63 19 18.443606097   15.8 15.4     [WC4] 254 2
7 PN K 3-91 PN 01 58 36.174 +66 33 58.13           ~ 34 0
8 PN K 3-92 PN 02 03 41.171 +64 57 37.88           ~ 42 0
9 PN K 3-93 PN 02 26 30.015 +65 47 53.09           ~ 26 0
10 NAME Magellanic Clouds GrG 03 00 -71.0           ~ 5868 1
11 IC 289 PN 03 10 19.3017174108 +61 19 00.913583325   16.8       ~ 147 1
12 PN K 3-94 PN 03 36 08.086 +60 03 46.29           ~ 42 0
13 PN M 1-4 PN 03 41 43.4168166754 +52 17 00.260598954   15.86 14.27 15.26   ~ 111 1
14 NGC 1501 PN 04 06 59.3919688584 +60 55 14.277444117   15.17 13.0     [WO4] 283 1
15 PN M 2-2 PN 04 13 15.0280252882 +56 56 58.401529746           ~ 85 0
16 PN K 3-64 PN 04 13 27.255 +51 51 00.92           ~ 22 0
17 PN K 4-47 PN 04 20 45.198 +56 18 12.06           ~ 61 0
18 PN M 4-18 PN 04 25 50.8357219366 +60 07 12.778708522   14.22 13.96     [WC11] 170 0
19 PN K 3-66 PN 04 36 37.23 +33 39 30.0           O 70 0
20 PN K 3-67 PN 04 39 47.93 +36 45 42.6           ~ 71 0
21 Jonckheere 320 PN 05 05 34.2774523754 +10 42 22.923399381           O3V(f) 273 2
22 PN A66 8 PN 05 06 38.4228176553 +39 08 08.667928023           ~ 47 0
23 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 15214 1
24 IC 418 PN 05 27 28.2060343141 -12 41 50.282659007   9.78 13.0     O7fp 1004 2
25 PN H 3-75 PN 05 40 44.9722709472 +12 21 22.518128674   14.8       ~ 53 0
26 NAME Gal Anticenter reg 05 46 +28.9           ~ 748 0
27 PN M 1-5 PN 05 46 50.0109398369 +24 22 02.818353956           ~ 112 1
28 IC 2149 PN 05 56 23.9008985692 +46 06 17.206983220   11.21 11.35     O7.5 420 0
29 PN K 3-70 PN 05 58 45.34 +25 18 43.8           ~ 32 0
30 PN A66 12 PN 06 02 20.045 +09 39 14.09           ~ 66 0
31 PN A66 13 PN 06 04 47.896 +03 56 35.76   20.06 19.87     ~ 58 0
32 PN A66 14 PN 06 11 08.6565573587 +11 46 43.823107317   15.75 15.24     B8-9 48 0
33 IC 2165 PN 06 21 42.775 -12 59 13.96     10.0     ~ 368 1
34 PN VV 28 PN 06 25 57.2723419700 +17 47 27.124872408     12.5     [WC] 283 0
35 PN M 1-6 PN 06 35 45.1225761631 -00 05 37.414428023     15.84     O6-9I 109 1
36 PN M 1-7 PN 06 37 20.966 +24 00 36.56           ~ 109 0
37 PN K 4-48 PN 06 39 55.842 +11 06 30.34     13.2     ~ 40 0
38 PN M 1-8 PN 06 53 33.795 +03 08 26.96   11.7       ~ 97 0
39 PN PB 1 PN 07 02 46.809 -13 42 33.74           ~ 45 0
40 PN M 1-9 PN 07 05 19.2001371201 +02 46 59.443071335           ~ 86 0
41 PN St 3-1 PN 07 06 50.9104259770 -03 05 09.178288842   16.5       ~ 26 0
42 NGC 2346 PN 07 09 22.5216571385 -00 48 23.611157830   11.76 11.58     A5V 556 0
43 PN M 1-11 PN 07 11 16.6940677796 -19 51 02.897395901     13.5     WC10-11 138 0
44 PN K 1-10 PN 07 12 35.493 -16 05 59.71           ~ 40 0
45 PN M 3-2 PN 07 14 49.9222596561 -27 50 23.233529658           ~ 74 0
46 PN M 1-12 PN 07 19 21.4686621026 -21 43 55.406123858     14.08     WC10-11 112 0
47 PN M 1-13 PN 07 21 15.037 -18 08 34.65   11.0       ~ 93 0
48 NGC 2371 PN 07 25 34.6884571396 +29 29 26.430027683   14.48 13.5     Oe 353 0
49 PN M 3-3 PN 07 26 34.228 -05 21 52.16           ~ 77 0
50 PN M 1-14 PN 07 27 56.5102638256 -20 13 22.651795279           O(H)7-9 97 0
51 NGC 2392 PN 07 29 10.7669120392 +20 54 42.478515772     9.68     O6f 700 1
52 PN M 1-16 PN 07 37 18.902 -09 38 47.96   12.7       ~ 176 0
53 PN M 1-17 PN 07 40 22.198 -11 32 29.92           ~ 97 0
54 NGC 2438 PN 07 41 50.5198569363 -14 44 07.484261077           ~ 277 3
55 NGC 2440 PN 07 41 54.91 -18 12 29.7   18.9       ~ 631 2
56 NGC 2452 PN 07 47 26.2648363344 -27 20 06.826143423   17.9 12.20     [WO1] 248 0
57 PN M 3-4 PN 07 55 11.3984990374 -23 38 12.600791124     14.40     ~ 66 0
58 PN M 3-5 PN 08 02 28.956 -27 41 55.00     14.40     ~ 83 0
59 PN Y-C 2-5 PN 08 10 41.6413282331 -20 31 32.309151197           wels 38 0
60 PN M 3-6 PN 08 40 40.2262121476 -32 22 33.594159962     12.79     [WC] 104 0
61 EM* AS 204 PN 08 53 30.91 -40 03 42.3     14.00     ~ 84 1
62 NGC 2792 PN 09 12 26.561 -42 25 38.92     11.8     ~ 173 0
63 WRAY 15-344 PN 09 13 52.85 -55 28 17.2     13.70     ~ 54 0
64 NGC 2867 PN 09 21 25.3833564294 -58 18 40.616684216   12.0 10.30     [WO2] 293 0
65 IC 2501 PN 09 38 47.1807127191 -60 05 30.742117523   11.7 10     O3-6 174 0
66 WRAY 16-59 PN 09 47 24.7917605714 -48 58 14.619456976     13.50     ~ 63 0
67 NGC 3195 PN 10 09 20.910 -80 51 30.73           ~ 110 0
68 PN PB 6 PN 10 13 15.989 -50 19 59.13   17.4 17.6     [WO1] 127 0
69 NGC 3211 PN 10 17 50.544 -62 40 12.10   19.4 11.50     ~ 177 0
70 NGC 3242 PN 10 24 46.1335198512 -18 38 32.294434711   11.83 12.15     ~ 802 1
71 WRAY 17-45 PN 10 31 31.95 -53 33 29.5     15.00     ~ 40 0
72 WRAY 16-79 PN 10 48 43.2301944525 -56 03 09.641474401   17.6 17.4     [WO3] 69 0
73 IC 2621 PN 11 00 19.99 -65 14 57.8     11.80     wels 128 0
74 M 97 PN 11 14 47.7125021184 +55 01 08.485325068   15.414 15.777 15.960 16.194 ~ 333 1
75 PN Fg 1 PN 11 28 36.2238250551 -52 56 04.118262147   13.1 12.20     ~ 160 0
76 NGC 3918 PN 11 50 17.7723407998 -57 10 57.059135256   10.0 8.5     ~ 365 0
77 IC 3568 PN 12 33 06.871 +82 33 48.95   11.4 11.1     ~ 389 1
78 PN Th 2-A PN 13 22 33.79 -63 21 01.3     15.00     ~ 84 0
79 NGC 5307 PN 13 51 03.322 -51 12 20.77   11.5 10     O3.5V 169 0
80 NGC 5315 PN 13 53 56.9609674528 -66 30 50.915454108   14.58 14.40     [WO4] 294 0
81 WRAY 16-156 PN 14 33 17.97 -60 49 36.3   16.3 16.7   15.38 ~ 157 0
82 WRAY 16-162 PN 15 05 16.80 -55 11 10.5     14.50     ~ 110 0
83 NGC 5882 PN 15 16 49.9567882973 -45 38 58.610861335   11.9 10.9     ~ 267 0
84 WRAY 16-195 PN 15 59 08.85 -58 23 52.8     14.00     ~ 92 0
85 IC 4593 PN 16 11 44.5480003321 +12 04 17.033164436   10.91 10.84     O7fp 441 0
86 PN Mz 2 PN 16 14 32.3972570889 -54 57 04.660854787     13.00     ~ 99 0
87 PN Mz 3 PN 16 17 13.3911453557 -51 59 10.706640574   10.8 14.00     O9.5 335 0
88 WRAY 16-218 PN 16 23 30.6471124003 -58 19 22.793842731   13.7 13.90     ~ 66 0
89 NGC 6210 PN 16 44 29.5195973291 +23 47 59.491267229   12.3 11.7     Of/[WR] 575 0
90 PN PC 14 PN 17 06 14.75 -52 30 00.5   17.2 16.5     [WC4/6] 104 0
91 NGC 6302 PN 17 13 44.339 -37 06 10.95   7.1 10.10     ~ 761 1
92 NGC 6309 PN 17 14 04.3073336607 -12 54 37.891046946   11.6       O(He) 297 1
93 NGC 6369 PN 17 29 20.4566547788 -23 45 34.771598164   16.6 12.00     [WC4] 304 0
94 PN Hb 4 PN 17 41 52.7988053576 -24 42 08.343474051   18.4 17     [WC4] 206 1
95 PN H 2-18 PN 17 43 28.751 -21 09 51.29           ~ 72 0
96 PN M 3-15 PN 17 45 31.7106453927 -20 58 01.474691822           [WC4/6] 118 1
97 GAL 000.0+00.0 gam 17 45 39.60213 -29 00 22.0000           ~ 12014 0
98 NGC 6439 PN 17 48 19.820 -16 28 44.42     12.2     ~ 172 0
99 NGC 6445 PN 17 49 15.21 -20 00 34.5   18.9       ~ 285 0
100 PN Cn 2-1 PN 17 54 33.010 -34 22 21.15     12.70 14.47 13.70 ~ 131 0
101 IC 4670 PN 17 55 07.031 -21 44 40.04   15.03 13.28 13.88 13.56 ~ 143 2
102 PN M 1-34 PN 18 01 22.146 -33 17 45.21     10.5   16.31 ~ 63 0
103 NGC 6537 PN 18 05 13.104 -19 50 34.88     13.58     ~ 413 1
104 PN M 1-40 PN 18 08 25.989 -22 16 52.93   11       ~ 111 1
105 PN M 1-42 PN 18 11 04.99 -28 58 59.1   13.1 14.00     ~ 196 0
106 NGC 6565 PN 18 11 52.558 -28 10 42.35   12.5 12.2 12.12   PN 221 0
107 NGC 6563 PN 18 12 02.50 -33 52 07.0   11.7 10     ~ 173 1
108 NGC 6572 PN 18 12 06.3140077888 +06 51 13.030152295   9.3 10.8     [WC] 740 0
109 NGC 6567 PN 18 13 45.1634807418 -19 04 34.069059115     10.9     [WC5/6] 261 1
110 NGC 6578 PN 18 16 16.517 -20 27 02.67           [WC4/6] 196 0
111 PN Cn 3-1 PN 18 17 34.1015205519 +10 09 03.306489008   12.93 12.49 12.35   07Ib(f) 209 0
112 NGC 6620 PN 18 22 54.182 -26 49 17.19   12.8 13.30 14.34 14.55 ~ 135 0
113 NGC 6629 PN 18 25 42.4541350714 -23 12 10.552870531   11.90 9.9     [WC5/6] 256 0
114 PN M 1-50 PN 18 33 20.88 -18 16 37.1           ~ 83 0
115 PN M 1-51 PN 18 33 29.05 -11 07 26.5           [WC4/6] 85 1
116 PN M 1-54 PN 18 36 08.357 -16 59 57.02           ~ 80 0
117 IC 4776 PN 18 45 50.705 -33 20 34.12   11.98 10.62     [WC]pec 192 1
118 PN Pe 1-18 PN 18 48 46.454 -05 56 07.71     15.2     ~ 47 0
119 PN Hu 2-1 PN 18 49 47.56755 +20 50 39.4576   12.369 11.126 12.30   ~ 266 0
120 M 57 PN 18 53 35.0969571234 +33 01 44.883146221   15.405 15.769 15.901 16.062 DA(O?) 796 2
121 NGC 6741 PN 19 02 37.10 -00 26 56.7     9.6     ~ 342 0
122 NGC 6751 PN 19 05 55.5385116189 -05 59 32.291075445   15.78 15.48     [WC4] 321 0
123 IC 1297 PN 19 17 23.4475611063 -39 36 46.255054503     10.89     [WC3/4] 154 0
124 NGC 6790 PN 19 22 56.966 +01 30 46.46   12.52 10.45     wels 314 0
125 NGC 6803 PN 19 31 16.47 +10 03 21.7     15.2     ~ 244 0
126 PN Me 1-1 PN 19 39 09.8201107636 +15 56 48.274244829           ~ 120 0
127 PN M 1-74 PN 19 42 18.78 +15 09 08.3   12.8       ~ 120 0
128 NGC 6826 PN 19 44 48.1500835472 +50 31 30.250916761   10.21 9.6     O6fp 701 0
129 M 27 PN 19 59 36.3632092274 +22 43 16.312364964   13.749 14.089 14.247 14.405 DAO.6 571 0
130 NGC 6884 PN 20 10 23.6401227444 +46 27 39.547818788   11.9 10.9     ~ 308 1
131 NGC 6881 PN 20 10 52.45 +37 24 42.4           ~ 200 0
132 NGC 6886 PN 20 12 42.83 +19 59 22.6           ~ 315 0
133 NGC 6891 PN 20 15 08.8436589777 +12 42 15.585470301   12.11 12.51     O3Ib(f*) 384 0
134 NGC 7008 PN 21 00 32.817600 +54 32 35.37600       13.21   ~ 232 2
135 NGC 7009 PN 21 04 10.8153350719 -11 21 48.581808296   12.48 12.07     ~ 969 1
136 NGC 7026 PN 21 06 18.5721833093 +47 51 06.780221314   15.33 15.1     [WC3] 406 1
137 NGC 7027 PN 21 07 01.8 +42 14 10   9.1 10.9     ~ 2353 1
138 PN K 3-61 PN 21 30 00.7568306607 +54 27 27.196178986   15.9 14.8     [WC4/6] 70 0
139 PN Hu 1-2 PN 21 33 08.3071114501 +39 38 09.524664348     12.0     ~ 277 1
140 PN M 2-52 PN 22 20 30.425 +57 36 19.64           ~ 53 0
141 IC 5217 PN 22 23 55.7197244731 +50 58 00.461084740     15.5     [WC7] 300 0
142 NGC 7293 PN 22 29 38.5453078023 -20 50 13.746093105 11.894 13.158 13.524 13.689 13.898 DAO.5 907 0
143 PN Me 2-2 PN 22 31 43.683 +47 48 03.91   9.3       ~ 147 0
144 NGC 7354 PN 22 40 19.8738736066 +61 17 08.744408285           ~ 267 2
145 PN M 1-80 PN 22 56 19.907 +57 09 21.07           ~ 95 1
146 PN M 2-55 PN 23 31 52.708 +70 22 10.11           ~ 77 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.03.05-17:35:43

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