Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 406, 187-196 (2010/July-3)
Parsec-scale SiO emission in an infrared dark cloud.
JIMENEZ-SERRA I., CASELLI P., TAN J.C., HERNANDEZ A.K., FONTANI F., BUTLER M.J. and VAN LOO S.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present high-sensitivity 2x4arcmin2 maps of the J = 2⟶1 rotational lines of SiO, CO, 13CO and C18O, observed towards the filamentary infrared dark cloud (IRDC) G035.39-00.33. Single-pointing spectra of the SiO J = 2⟶1 and J = 3⟶2 lines towards several regions in the filament are also reported. The SiO images reveal that SiO is widespread along the IRDC (size ≥2pc), showing two different components: one bright and compact arising from three condensations (N, E and S) and the other weak and extended along the filament. While the first component shows broad lines (linewidths of ∼4-7 km/s) in both SiO J = 2⟶1 and SiO J = 3⟶2, the second one is only detected in SiO J = 2⟶1 and has narrow lines (∼0.8 km/s). The maps of CO and its isotopologues show that low-density filaments are intersecting the IRDC and appear to merge towards the densest portion of the cloud. This resembles the molecular structures predicted by flow-driven, shock-induced and magnetically-regulated cloud formation models. As in outflows associated with low-mass star formation, the excitation temperatures and fractional abundances of SiO towards N, E and S increase with velocity from ∼6 to 40K and from ∼10–10 to ≥10–8, respectively, over a velocity range of ∼7 km/s. Since 8 µm and 24 µm sources and/or extended 4.5µm emission are detected in N, E and S, broad SiO is likely produced in outflows associated with high-mass protostars. The excitation temperatures and fractional abundances of the narrow SiO lines, however, are very low (∼9K and ∼10–11, respectively), and consistent with the processing of interstellar grains by the passage of a shock with vs∼ 12 km/s. This emission could be generated (i) by a large-scale shock, perhaps remnant of the IRDC formation process, (ii) by decelerated or recently processed gas in large-scale outflows driven by 8- and 24-µm sources or (iii) by an undetected and widespread population of lower mass protostars. High-angular-resolution observations are needed to disentangle between these three scenarios.
© 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 RAS
stars: formation - ISM: individual objects: G035.39-00.33 - ISM: molecules
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