2011ApJ...734...26B


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2020.04.06CEST11:56:00

2011ApJ...734...26B - Astrophys. J., 734, 26 (2011/June-2)

Can the soft X-ray opacity toward high-redshift sources probe the missing baryons?

BEHAR E., DADO S., DAR A. and LAOR A.

Abstract (from CDS):

Observations with the Swift satellite of X-ray afterglows of more than a hundred gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with known redshift reveal ubiquitous soft X-ray absorption. The directly measured optical depth τ at a given observed energy is found to be constant on average at redshift z > 2, i.e., #964;(0.5 keV)_ z > 2_= 0.40±0.02. Such an asymptotic optical depth is expected if the foreground diffuse intergalactic medium (IGM) dominates the absorption effect and if the metallicity of the diffuse IGM reaches 0.2-0.4 solar at z = 0. To further test the IGM absorption hypothesis, we analyze the 12 highest signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) (>5000 photons) z > 2 quasar spectra from the XMM-Newton archive, which are all extremely radio loud. The quasar optical depths are found to be consistent with the mean GRB value. The four lowest-z quasars (2 < z < 2.5), however, do not show significant absorption. The best X-ray spectra of radio-quiet quasars at z > 2 provide only upper limits to the absorption, which are still consistent with the radio-loud quasers (RLQs), albeit with much lower S/N ( ≲ 1000 photons at z ~ 4). Lack of quasar absorption poses a challenge to the smooth IGM interpretation and could allude to the opacity being rather due to the jets in RLQs and GRBs. However, the jet absorbing column would need to appear in RLQs only at z ≳ 2.5 and in GRBs to strongly increase with z in order to produce the observed tendency to a constant mean τ. High X-ray spectral resolution can differentiate between an absorber intrinsic to the source that produces discernible spectral lines, and the diffuse IGM that produces significant absorption, but no discrete features.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): cosmology: observations - intergalactic medium - opacity - quasars: absorption lines - radiative transfer - X-rays: bursts

Status at CDS:  

Simbad objects: 28

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Number of rows : 28

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2020
#notes
1 QSO J0003-2603 QSO 00 03 22.9530051057 -26 03 18.306624161   18 17.53     ~ 272 0
2 6C 001403+811827 QSO 00 17 08.4748554 +81 35 08.136591   17.60 16.52 15.95   ~ 357 1
3 GRB 050904 gB 00 54 50.794 +14 05 09.42           ~ 428 1
4 GRB 060202 gB 02 23 22.940 +38 23 03.70           ~ 84 0
5 QSO J0225+1846 QSO 02 25 04.6672463736 +18 46 48.759971912   20.0 20.0 19.09   ~ 71 1
6 QSO B0237-2322 QSO 02 40 08.1742481040 -23 09 15.727160394   16.78 16.63     ~ 470 0
7 GRB 060223A gB 03 40 49.560 -17 07 48.40     17.90     ~ 76 0
8 GRB 060210 gB 03 50 57.370 +27 01 34.40   20.27       ~ 221 0
9 QSO B0438-43 QSO 04 40 17.1805718498 -43 33 08.609959495   19.31 19.5 18.2   ~ 250 1
10 QSO J0525-3343 QSO 05 25 06.1754530726 -33 43 05.643316632     18.50 18.5   ~ 48 1
11 7C 055201.39+394824.00 QSO 05 55 30.80561150 +39 48 49.1649664     18.0 17.5   ~ 460 2
12 4C 71.07 QSO 08 41 24.36526906 +70 53 42.1730054     16.5 16.8   ~ 687 1
13 GRB 090516A gB 09 12 59 -11 50.9           ~ 119 0
14 [VV2006] J092636.3+305505 QSO 09 26 36.3318136090 +30 55 04.942592968     17.31     ~ 21 0
15 GRB 050505 gB 09 27 03.300 +30 16 23.70     20.74     ~ 168 1
16 GRB 090519 gB 09 29 16.20 +00 11 23.9           ~ 70 0
17 QSO B1026-084 QSO 10 28 38.7978854994 -08 44 38.519229195     21.00 19.6   ~ 65 1
18 GRB 100513A gB 11 18 26.83 +03 37 40.8           ~ 49 0
19 QSO B1318-113 QSO 13 21 09.3758401970 -11 39 31.898510991   17.63 17.68     ~ 27 0
20 7C 142826.80+421756.00 QSO 14 30 23.74163330 +42 04 36.4911889   24.43 22.04 20.2   ~ 110 1
21 GRB 060510B gB 15 56 29.200 +78 34 12.00           ~ 129 0
22 QSO B1830-211 QSO 18 33 39.92 -21 03 39.9     18.70 21   ~ 543 6
23 QSO B2126-15 QSO 21 29 12.17589777 -15 38 41.0413097   17.61 17.3 17.3   ~ 460 1
24 GRB 060522 gB 21 31 44.850 +02 53 10.80           ~ 113 0
25 QSO B2149-306 QSO 21 51 55.52398143 -30 27 53.6979987   17.95 18.0 17.48   ~ 216 1
26 QSO J2220-2803 QSO 22 20 06.7586653848 -28 03 23.466203761     16.0 16.10   ~ 88 0
27 GRB 081029 gB 23 07 06 -68 10.7           ~ 89 0
28 QSO J2354-1513 QSO 23 54 30.19518762 -15 13 11.2130207   18.49 17 18.88   ~ 111 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2020.04.06-11:56:00

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