Astronomy and Astrophysics, volume 544A, 67-67 (2012/8-1)
Properties of Galactic early-type O-supergiants. A combined FUV-UV and optical analysis.
BOURET J.-C., HILLIER D.J., LANZ T. and FULLERTON A.W.
Abstract (from CDS):
We aim to constrain the properties and evolutionary status of early and mid-spectral type supergiants (from O4 to O7.5). These posses the highest mass-loss rates among the O stars, and exhibit conspicuous wind profiles. Using the non-LTE wind code cmfgen we simultaneously analyzed the FUV-UV and optical spectral range to determine the photospheric properties and wind parameters. We derived effective temperatures, luminosities, surface gravities, surface abundances, mass-loss rates, wind terminal velocities, and clumping filling factors. The supergiants define a very clear evolutionary sequence, in terms of ages and masses, from younger and more massive stars to older stars with lower initial masses. O4 supergiants cluster around the 3Myr isochrone and are more massive than 60M☉, while the O5 to O7.5 stars have masses in the range 50-40M☉ and are 4±0.3Myr old. The surface chemical composition is typical of evolved O supergiants (nitrogen-rich, carbon- and oxygen-poor). While the observed ranges of carbon and nitrogen mass-fractions are compatible with those expected from evolutionary models for the measured stellar masses, the N/C ratios as a function of age are inconsistent with the theoretical predictions for the four earliest (O4 spectral type) stars of the sample. We question the efficiency of rotational mixing as a function of age for these stars and suggest that another mechanism may be needed to explain the observed abundance patterns. Mass-loss rates derived with clumped-models range within a factor of three of the theoretical mass-loss rates. The corresponding volume-filling factors associated with small-scale clumping are 0.05±0.02. Clumping is found to start close to the photosphere for all but three stars, two of which are fast rotators.
stars: early-type - stars: atmospheres - stars: winds, outflows - stars: fundamental parameters - stars: evolution
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