Astrophys. J., 745, 47 (2012/January-3)
Large-scale kinematics, astrochemistry, and magnetic field studies of massive star-forming regions through HC3N, HNC, and C2 H mappings.
LI J., WANG J., GU Q., ZHANG Z.-Y. and ZHENG X.
Abstract (from CDS):
We have mapped 27 massive star-forming regions associated with water masers using three dense gas tracers: HC3 N 10-9, HNC 1-0, and C2H 1-0. The FWHM sizes of HNC clumps and C2 H clumps are about 1.5 and 1.6 times higher than those of HC3N, respectively, which can be explained by the fact that HC3 N traces more dense gas than HNC and C2H. We found evidence for an increase in the optical depth of C2 H with a "radius" from the center to the outer regions in some targets, supporting the chemical model of C2H. The C2 H optical depth is found to decline as molecular clouds evolve to a later stage, suggesting that C2 H might be used as a "chemical clock" for molecular clouds. The large-scale kinematic structure of clouds was investigated with three molecular lines. All of these sources show significant velocity gradients. The magnitudes of gradient are found to increase toward the inner region, indicating the differential rotation of clouds. Both the ratio of rotational to gravitational energy and the specific angular momentum seem to decrease toward the inner region, implying the obvious angular momentum transfer, which might be caused by magnetic braking. The average magnetic field strength and number density of molecular clouds is derived using the uniform magnetic sphere model. The derived magnetic field strengths range from 3 to 88 µG, with a median value of 13 µG. The mass-to-flux ratio of the molecular cloud is calculated to be much higher than the critical value with derived parameters, which agrees well with numerical simulations.
ISM: clouds - ISM: kinematics and dynamics - ISM: molecules - stars: formation
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