2012ApJ...761...37M


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.03.02CET19:15:28

2012ApJ...761...37M - Astrophys. J., 761, 37 (2012/December-2)

Giant molecular cloud evolutions in the nearby spiral galaxy M33.

MIURA R.E., KOHNO K., TOSAKI T., ESPADA D., HWANG N., KUNO N., OKUMURA S.K., HIROTA A., MURAOKA K., ONODERA S., MINAMIDANI T., KOMUGI S., NAKANISHI K., SAWADA T., KANEKO H. and KAWABE R.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present a giant molecular cloud (GMC) catalog of M33, containing 71 GMCs in total, based on wide-field and high-sensitivity CO(J = 3-2) observations with a spatial resolution of 100 pc using the ASTE 10 m telescope. Employing archival optical data, we identify 75 young stellar groups (YSGs) from the excess of the surface stellar density, and estimate their ages by comparing with stellar evolution models. A spatial comparison among the GMCs, YSGs, and H II regions enable us to classify GMCs into four categories: Type A, showing no sign of massive star formation (SF); Type B, being associated only with H II regions; Type C, with both H II regions and <10 Myr old YSGs; and Type D, with both H II regions and 10-30 Myr YSGs. Out of 65 GMCs (discarding those at the edges of the observed fields), 1 (1%), 13 (20%), 29 (45%), and 22 (34%) are Types A, B, C, and D, respectively. We interpret these categories as stages in a GMC evolutionary sequence. Assuming that the timescale for each evolutionary stage is proportional to the number of GMCs, the lifetime of a GMC with a mass >105 M is estimated to be 20-40 Myr. In addition, we find that the dense gas fraction as traced by the CO(J = 3-2)/CO(J = 1-0) ratio is enhanced around SF regions. This confirms a scenario where dense gas is preferentially formed around previously generated stars, and will be the fuel for the next stellar generation. In this way, massive SF gradually propagates in a GMC until gas is exhausted.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): galaxies: individual: M33 - ISM: clouds - ISM: molecules - submillimeter: ISM

VizieR on-line data: <Available at CDS (J/ApJ/761/37): table2.dat table3.dat table4.dat>

Nomenclature: Tables 2,4: [MKT2012] NN N=71, [MKT2012] YSG NN N=75

Errata: erratum vol. 834, art. 97 (2017)

CDS comments: Table 2 [MKT2012] 34 not in SIMBAD (no coordinate).

Simbad objects: 153

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Number of rows : 153

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 11211 1
2 IC 135 ISM 01 33.2 +30 28           ~ 6 0
3 VGHC 2-22 HII 01 33 12.188 +30 38 47.14           ~ 76 0
4 [GBR2012] 136 MoC 01 33 22.34 +30 32 15.6           ~ 2 0
5 [EPR2003] 27 MoC 01 33 23.1 +30 32 00           ~ 5 0
6 [MKT2012] 13 MoC 01 33 29.8 +30 32 01           ~ 5 0
7 [KPM2002] G133.5520-31.4725 Cl* 01 33 30.06 +30 31 48.7   16.576 16.466   16.197 ~ 5 0
8 [SSA2010] 1248 GlC 01 33 32.01 +30 33 21.8 17.160 17.610 17.309 17.099 16.750 ~ 13 0
9 M33GMC 43 MoC 01 33 32.70 +30 37 03.7           ~ 4 0
10 [SSA2010] 1261 G 01 33 33.110 +30 32 12.92           ~ 2 0
11 [EPR2003] 49 MoC 01 33 33.2 +30 31 56           ~ 5 0
12 [EPR2003] 55 MoC 01 33 33.4 +30 32 14           ~ 5 0
13 [EPR2003] 32 MoC 01 33 33.5 +30 41 21           ~ 4 0
14 NGC 595 HII 01 33 33.53 +30 41 29.8           ~ 193 0
15 [ZK2009] 28 Cl* 01 33 33.670 +30 32 01.56           ~ 3 0
16 NAME M33 X-7 HXB 01 33 34.13 +30 32 11.3 17.50 18.80 18.70     O 132 2
17 CBF 37 GlC 01 33 34.3543516740 +30 42 00.993641679 18.674 19.036 18.637 18.300 17.931 ~ 10 0
18 [EPR2003] 80 MoC 01 33 34.8 +30 37 02           ~ 5 0
19 [CS82] H29 Cl* 01 33 34.90 +30 37 05.6 19.325 20.270 19.814 19.152 19.436 ~ 4 0
20 [MKT2012] 9 MoC 01 33 35.8 +30 36 29           ~ 5 0
21 [MKT2012] 50 MoC 01 33 35.90 +30 42 09.7           ~ 1 0
22 [SSA2010] 1284 G 01 33 35.94 +30 36 28.8           ~ 5 1
23 [SSA2010] 1285 GlC 01 33 36.020 +30 42 33.24           ~ 2 0
24 [SM2006] W30043 V* 01 33 36.5644601277 +30 31 55.736517725           ~ 4 1
25 [REP2003] 6 MoC 01 33 36.7 +30 39 31           ~ 8 0
26 [EPR2003] 104 MoC 01 33 38.6 +30 32 20           ~ 5 0
27 [SSA2010] 1341 ? 01 33 39.060 +30 38 03.06           ~ 2 0
28 [GBR2012] 41 MoC 01 33 39.06 +30 32 45.7           ~ 3 0
29 [SM2007] 545 GlC 01 33 39.080 +30 38 25.21 17.204 17.942 17.658 17.327 16.487 ~ 5 0
30 [SSA2010] 1343 GlC 01 33 39.100 +30 32 32.70           ~ 2 0
31 [SSA2010] 1345 GlC 01 33 39.190 +30 32 39.55           ~ 2 0
32 [MBH96] 153 * 01 33 39.38 +30 38 10.7   18.29 18.50     ~ 4 0
33 CBF 43 Cl* 01 33 39.71 +30 32 29.2 20.419 20.537 20.047 19.653 18.814 ~ 8 0
34 [SSA2010] 1361 s*b 01 33 39.913 +30 38 26.30 15.738 17.585 16.971 15.714 15.209 B5Ia 19 1
35 [BLR2008] M33 12 MoC 01 33 40.1 +30 38 40           ~ 4 0
36 [GBR2012] 103 MoC 01 33 41.0 +30 39 14           ~ 18 0
37 [SSA2010] 1394 Gl? 01 33 41.660 +30 40 19.56           ~ 2 0
38 IC 139 * 01 33.7 +30 28   13.10       ~ 1 0
39 [EPR2003] 129 MoC 01 33 42.0 +30 40 08           ~ 4 0
40 [MAP95] M 33 OB9 1 s?b 01 33 42.26 +30 32 58.0 18.032 19.185 19.346 19.335 19.447 B0.5I+neb 4 0
41 [SSA2010] 1407 GlC 01 33 42.310 +30 40 22.23           ~ 2 0
42 [EPR2003] 22 MoC 01 33 42.7 +30 33 10           ~ 8 0
43 [MBH96] 173 s?b 01 33 42.85 +30 38 52.7 17.438 18.288 18.414 18.457 18.502 B1-2I 4 0
44 [SSA2010] 1415 Gl? 01 33 42.8828877320 +30 32 52.938099984           ~ 2 0
45 M33GMC 16 MoC 01 33 43.10 +30 37 31.0           ~ 2 0
46 [GDK99] 82 HII 01 33 43.68 +30 39 05.0           ~ 4 1
47 [GBR2012] 93 MoC 01 33 43.78 +30 38 55.8           ~ 3 0
48 [EPR2003] 126 MoC 01 33 44.2 +30 32 08           ~ 5 0
49 [EPR2003] 23 MoC 01 33 45.1 +30 36 00           ~ 6 0
50 [MKT2012] 23 MoC 01 33 45.3 +30 36 52           ~ 5 0
51 [EPR2003] 122 MoC 01 33 45.3 +30 33 15           ~ 4 0
52 [SSG2009] 113 GlC 01 33 45.9640803363 +30 36 49.474352961 18.000 18.775 18.597 18.549 18.476 ~ 6 0
53 [EPR2003] 52 MoC 01 33 46.8 +30 38 55           ~ 6 0
54 [MKT2012] 24 MoC 01 33 46.9 +30 32 41           ~ 6 0
55 [MKT2012] 31 MoC 01 33 47.10 +30 38 46.4           ~ 1 0
56 [SSA2010] 1493 ? 01 33 47.51 +30 39 46.9           ~ 2 0
57 [FS95b] L119-1 Em* 01 33 47.75 +30 38 37.0   17.30 18.70     ~ 3 0
58 [EPR2003] 106 MoC 01 33 47.9 +30 39 32           ~ 6 0
59 [SSA2010] 1499 GlC 01 33 48.00 +30 33 04.7 17.656 18.452 18.738 17.519 16.572 ~ 4 1
60 [B2011b] 5 HII 01 33 48.39 +30 39 35.7           ~ 4 0
61 D33 J013348.8+303841.0 V* 01 33 48.85 +30 38 41.0           ~ 3 0
62 [NM2011] J013348.85+303949.6 WR* 01 33 48.85 +30 39 49.6 19.195 19.811 19.622 19.567 19.966 WN 6 0
63 [MKT2012] 11 MoC 01 33 49.60 +30 33 55.0           ~ 1 0
64 [EPR2003] 24 MoC 01 33 49.6 +30 40 06           ~ 6 0
65 [SSA2010] 1527 ? 01 33 49.880 +30 37 31.82           ~ 2 0
66 [SSA2010] 1536 ? 01 33 50.330 +30 33 49.45           ~ 2 0
67 [EPR2003] 20 MoC 01 33 50.5 +30 33 58           ~ 7 0
68 [MKT2012] 32 MoC 01 33 50.60 +30 37 18.2           ~ 1 0
69 [SSA2010] 1546 GlC 01 33 50.90 +30 38 55.5 16.373 17.087 16.779 16.383 15.654 ~ 13 0
70 M 33 GiG 01 33 50.904 +30 39 35.79 6.17 6.27 5.72     ~ 5249 1
71 [SSA2010] 1550 ? 01 33 51.100 +30 39 56.34           ~ 2 0
72 [EPR2003] 98 MoC 01 33 51.2 +30 35 53           ~ 4 0
73 [SSA2010] 1554 V* 01 33 51.382 +30 39 00.21           ~ 5 0
74 [BLR2008] M33 14 MoC 01 33 52.4 +30 39 19           ~ 13 0
75 [GBR2012] 94 MoC 01 33 52.76 +30 37 04.8           ~ 3 0
76 [WS90b] MC 8 MoC 01 33 52.80 +30 37 41.7           ~ 7 0
77 [MKT2012] 41 MoC 01 33 52.90 +30 38 59.5           ~ 1 0
78 [GBR2012] 27 MoC 01 33 53.20 +30 33 10.4           ~ 4 0
79 [SSA2010] 1585 G 01 33 54.0438686698 +30 32 59.960046605           ~ 2 0
80 [B2011b] 20 GlC 01 33 54.13 +30 33 09.6 16.544 17.464 17.259 17.089 17.268 ~ 15 0
81 [SSA2010] 1598 G 01 33 54.810 +30 33 09.75           ~ 2 0
82 [EPR2003] 16 MoC 01 33 54.9 +30 37 44           ~ 8 0
83 IC 142 HII 01 33 55.1 +30 45 22   11.30 14.2     ~ 38 0
84 [CS82] U93 Cl* 01 33 55.2841143720 +30 37 34.157373258 18.510 19.563 19.405 18.829 19.061 ~ 4 0
85 [EPR2003] 17 MoC 01 33 57.0 +30 40 07           ~ 6 0
86 CBF 140 Cl* 01 33 57.16 +30 40 20.7 19.495 19.816 19.378 19.241 19.164 ~ 8 0
87 [MKT2012] 60 MoC 01 33 57.6 +30 36 41           ~ 4 0
88 [SSA2010] 1636 GlC 01 33 57.84 +30 35 31.8 18.916 18.945 18.133 17.699 17.172 ~ 15 0
89 [MKT2012] 57 MoC 01 33 57.90 +30 46 35.2           ~ 2 0
90 [SSA2010] 1645 GlC 01 33 58.58 +30 48 42.7 17.968 18.976 18.887 18.375 18.613 ~ 6 0
91 [SSA2010] 1647 GlC 01 33 58.67 +30 35 26.1 15.565 16.425 16.384 16.436 16.436 ~ 4 0
92 [BLR2008] M33 22 MoC 01 33 58.8 +30 48 44           ~ 5 0
93 [BPB2005] 19 Cl* 01 33 58.90 +30 49 11.0 17.537 18.516 18.273 17.704 17.839 ~ 5 0
94 [SSA2010] 1652 GlC 01 33 59.090 +30 40 06.82           ~ 2 0
95 [EPR2003] 13 MoC 01 33 59.1 +30 36 09           ~ 9 0
96 [SSA2010] 1654 G 01 33 59.190 +30 35 48.39           ~ 2 0
97 [BPB2005] 32 Cl* 01 33 59.46 +30 48 26.7 20.236 20.849 21.014 20.679 20.350 ~ 6 0
98 [GBR2012] 167 MoC 01 33 59.58 +30 37 12.8           ~ 3 0
99 [BLR2008] M33 20 MoC 01 33 59.6 +30 49 11           ~ 6 0
100 [SSA2010] 1682 GlC 01 34 00.600 +30 37 16.01           ~ 2 0
101 [SSA2010] 1685 ? 01 34 00.740 +30 46 27.87           ~ 2 0
102 IFM-B 1388 * 01 34 01.43 +30 36 30.5   18.8 18.80     ~ 3 0
103 [SSA2010] 1694 ? 01 34 01.470 +30 46 35.48           ~ 2 0
104 [EPR2003] 26 MoC 01 34 01.6 +30 36 43           ~ 4 0
105 [SSA2010] 1700 GlC 01 34 01.660 +30 37 19.76           ~ 2 0
106 [WS90b] MC 19 MoC 01 34 02.3 +30 39 09           ~ 10 0
107 [MKK98] M 33 30 Gl? 01 34 02.48 +30 38 41.1 17.566 18.355 18.186 18.110 18.125 ~ 6 0
108 [WS90b] MC 17 MoC 01 34 02.6 +30 38 38           ~ 10 0
109 [EPR2003] 56 MoC 01 34 02.6 +30 46 31           ~ 5 0
110 [GBR2012] 257 MoC 01 34 02.70 +30 48 40.8           ~ 2 0
111 [SSA2010] 1715 Gl? 01 34 02.79 +30 46 36.8 17.863 18.034 17.623 17.369 16.975 ~ 6 0
112 [EPR2003] 81 MoC 01 34 03.5 +30 48 13           ~ 5 0
113 [EPR2003] 77 MoC 01 34 04.0 +30 35 58           ~ 4 0
114 [EPR2003] 65 MoC 01 34 04.4 +30 48 59           ~ 5 0
115 [BPB2005] 12 Cl* 01 34 05.40 +30 47 50.9 19.622 20.579 20.384 20.355 20.359 ~ 4 0
116 [EPR2003] 10 MoC 01 34 06.6 +30 47 51           ~ 8 0
117 [EPR2003] 35 MoC 01 34 06.7 +30 39 27           ~ 5 0
118 [HS80] B393 WR* 01 34 06.79 +30 47 27.0 16.087 17.058 17.199 17.248 17.296 WN7 15 0
119 [HS80] 96A s*b 01 34 08.475 +30 39 02.03 16.052 16.691 16.604 16.474 16.099 B3Ia 17 0
120 CBF 122 GlC 01 34 08.6880485830 +30 39 23.309514969 17.585 17.803 17.373 17.125 16.816 ~ 10 0
121 [EPR2003] 7 MoC 01 34 08.8 +30 39 11           ~ 8 0
122 [EPR2003] 1 MoC 01 34 09.3 +30 49 06           ~ 15 0
123 [SSA2010] 1791 GlC 01 34 09.550 +30 39 09.60           ~ 2 0
124 [GBR2012] 262 MoC 01 34 09.62 +30 49 49.7           ~ 4 0
125 [MBH96] 310 * 01 34 09.67 +30 39 18.0 17.511 18.258 18.478 18.711 18.891 ~ 4 1
126 [BLR2008] M33 26 MoC 01 34 10.7 +30 36 18           ~ 10 0
127 [EPR2003] 39 MoC 01 34 10.8 +30 37 13           ~ 5 0
128 [SSA2010] 1825 G 01 34 11.350 +30 36 17.32           ~ 2 1
129 [EPR2003] 74 MoC 01 34 12.0 +30 48 28           ~ 7 0
130 [MKT2012] 62 MoC 01 34 13.41 +30 47 18.7           ~ 3 0
131 [EPR2003] 72 MoC 01 34 13.5 +30 39 03           ~ 7 0
132 [SSA2010] 1862 G 01 34 13.57 +30 33 41.4   19.3 19.10     ~ 3 1
133 BCLMP 710 C?* 01 34 13.666 +30 33 43.35 15.67 15.75 15.90 15.94 16.22 ~ 23 0
134 M33GMC 99 MoC 01 34 13.80 +30 34 38.0           ~ 2 0
135 [PL2007] 27 Cl* 01 34 14.96 +30 33 53.7 17.501 18.149 17.980 17.836 17.745 ~ 4 0
136 [SSA2010] 1895 G 01 34 14.990 +30 34 57.63           ~ 2 0
137 [SSA2010] 1906 GlC 01 34 15.67 +30 33 41.1 16.594 17.317 17.125 16.936 16.528 ~ 5 0
138 M33GMC 123 MoC 01 34 31.90 +30 47 42.0           ~ 2 0
139 NGC 604 HII 01 34 32.1 +30 47 01           ~ 554 0
140 [MKT2012] 1 MoC 01 34 33.0 +30 46 47           ~ 24 0
141 [EPR2003] 9 MoC 01 34 34.6 +30 46 17           ~ 20 0
142 [MKT2012] 48 MoC 01 34 36.40 +30 40 20.4           ~ 2 0
143 [MKT2012] 35 MoC 01 34 39.10 +30 40 38.9           ~ 2 0
144 [HS80] B562 GlC 01 34 39.72 +30 41 49.8   18.8 18.50     ~ 5 1
145 [SSA2010] 2167 G 01 34 39.76 +30 41 39.9   19 19.00     ~ 3 1
146 [SSA2010] 2168 G 01 34 39.800 +30 41 41.35           ~ 2 0
147 [SSA2010] 2169 G 01 34 39.870 +30 41 55.26           ~ 2 0
148 [MKT2012] 63 MoC 01 34 40.30 +30 41 30.6           ~ 2 0
149 * omi Cet Mi* 02 19 20.79210 -02 58 39.4956   7.63 6.53 5.03   M5-9IIIe+DA 1456 0
150 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 15205 1
151 NAME Orion-KL SFR 05 35 14.16 -05 22 21.5           ~ 2049 1
152 NGC 6822 G 19 44 56.199 -14 47 51.29   18 8.1     ~ 1452 0
153 NAME Local Group GrG ~ ~           ~ 7184 0

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2021.03.02-19:15:28

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