Astron. J., 146, 120 (2013/November-0)
MOJAVE. X. Parsec-scale jet orientation variations and superluminal motion in active galactic nuclei.
LISTER M.L., ALLER M.F., ALLER H.D., HOMAN D.C., KELLERMANN K.I., KOVALEV Y.Y., PUSHKAREV A.B., RICHARDS J.L., ROS E. and SAVOLAINEN T.
Abstract (from CDS):
We describe the parsec-scale kinematics of 200 active galactic nucleus (AGN) jets based on 15 GHz Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) data obtained between 1994 August 31 and 2011 May 1. We present new VLBA 15 GHz images of these and 59 additional AGNs from the MOJAVE and 2 cm Survey programs. Nearly all of the 60 most heavily observed jets show significant changes in their innermost position angle over a 12-16 yr interval, ranging from 10° to 150° on the sky, corresponding to intrinsic variations of ∼0.°5 to ∼2°. The BL Lac jets show smaller variations than quasars. Roughly half of the heavily observed jets show systematic position angle trends with time, and 20 show indications of oscillatory behavior. The time spans of the data sets are too short compared to the fitted periods (5-12 yr), however, to reliably establish periodicity. The rapid changes and large jumps in position angle seen in many cases suggest that the superluminal AGN jet features occupy only a portion of the entire jet cross section and may be energized portions of thin instability structures within the jet. We have derived vector proper motions for 887 moving features in 200 jets having at least five VLBA epochs. For 557 well-sampled features, there are sufficient data to additionally study possible accelerations. We find that the moving features are generally non-ballistic, with 70% of the well-sampled features showing either significant accelerations or non-radial motions. Inward motions are rare (2% of all features), are slow (<0.1 mas/yr), are more prevalent in BL Lac jets, and are typically found within 1 mas of the unresolved core feature. There is a general trend of increasing apparent speed with distance down the jet for both radio galaxies and BL Lac objects. In most jets, the speeds of the features cluster around a characteristic value, yet there is a considerable dispersion in the distribution. Orientation variations within the jet cannot fully account for the dispersion, implying that the features have a range of Lorentz factor and/or pattern speed. Very slow pattern speed features are rare, comprising only 4% of the sample, and are more prevalent in radio galaxy and BL Lac jets. We confirm a previously reported upper envelope to the distribution of speed versus beamed luminosity for moving jet features. Below 1026 W/Hz there is a fall-off in maximum speed with decreasing 15 GHz radio luminosity. The general shape of the envelope implies that the most intrinsically powerful AGN jets have a wide range of Lorentz factors up to ∼40, while intrinsically weak jets are only mildly relativistic.
BL Lacertae objects: general - galaxies: active - galaxies: jets - quasars: general - radio continuum: galaxies
VizieR on-line data:
<Available at CDS (J/AJ/146/120): table1.dat table3.dat table4.dat table5.dat table6.dat notes.dat refs.dat>
erratum vol. 151, art. 133 (2016)
Table 8: QSO B2200+520 is a probable misprint for QSO B2200+420.
View the reference in ADS
To bookmark this query, right click on this link: simbad:2013AJ....146..120L and select 'bookmark this link' or equivalent in the popup menu