Astrophys. J., 762, 120 (2013/January-2)
Early stages of cluster formation: fragmentation of massive dense cores down to ≲ 1000 AU.
PALAU A., FUENTE A., GIRART J.M., ESTALELLA R., HO P.T.P., SANCHEZ-MONGE A., FONTANI F., BUSQUET G., COMMERCON B., HENNEBELLE P., BOISSIER J., ZHANG Q., CESARONI R. and ZAPATA L.A.
Abstract (from CDS):
In order to study the fragmentation of massive dense cores, which constitute the cluster cradles, we observed the continuum at 1.3 mm and the CO (2-1) emission of four massive cores with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer in the most extended configuration. We detected dust condensations down to ∼0.3 M☉ and separate millimeter sources down to 0.''4 or ≲ 1000 AU, comparable to the sensitivities and separations reached in optical/infrared studies of clusters. The CO (2-1) high angular resolution images reveal high-velocity knots usually aligned with previously known outflow directions. This, in combination with additional cores from the literature observed at similar mass sensitivity and spatial resolution, allowed us to build a sample of 18 protoclusters with luminosities spanning three orders of magnitude. Among the 18 regions, ∼30% show no signs of fragmentation, while 50% split up into ≳ 4 millimeter sources. We compiled a list of properties for the 18 massive dense cores, such as bolometric luminosity, total mass, and mean density, and found no correlation of any of these parameters with the fragmentation level. In order to investigate the combined effects of the magnetic field, radiative feedback, and turbulence in the fragmentation process, we compared our observations to radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations and found that the low-fragmented regions are reproduced well in the magnetized core case, while the highly fragmented regions are consistent with cores where turbulence dominates over the magnetic field. Overall, our study suggests that the fragmentation in massive dense cores could be determined by the initial magnetic field/turbulence balance in each particular core.
ISM: individual (IRAS 22172+5549, IRAS 22134+5834, IRAS 22198+6336, AFGL5142) - radio continuum: ISM - stars: formation
Table 2: [PFG2013] I22172N-MMN (Nos MM1-MM4), [PFG2013] I22134-MMN (Nos MM1-MM4), [PFG2013] A5142-MMN N=7 among (Nos 1-9). Table 3: [PFG2013] I22172N-IRS1 N=1, [PFG2013] I22134-IRS1> N=1.
Table 3: [PFG2013] I22172N-IRS1 and [PFG2013] I22134-IRS1 are not in SIMBAD (no coordinates).
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