2013ApJ...766...85R


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2021.01.21CET05:37:31

2013ApJ...766...85R - Astrophys. J., 766, 85 (2013/April-1)

Herschel observations of the W3 GMC: clues to the formation of clusters of high-mass stars.

RIVERA-INGRAHAM A., MARTIN P.G., POLYCHRONI D., MOTTE F., SCHNEIDER N., BONTEMPS S., HENNEMANN M., MEN'SHCHIKOV A., NGUYEN LUONG Q., ANDRE P., ARZOUMANIAN D., BERNARD J.-P., DI FRANCESCO J., ELIA D., FALLSCHEER C., HILL T., LI J.Z., MINIER V., PEZZUTO S., ROY A., RYGL K.L.J., SADAVOY S.I., SPINOGLIO L., WHITE G.J. and WILSON C.D.

Abstract (from CDS):

The W3 GMC is a prime target for the study of the early stages of high-mass star formation. We have used Herschel data from the HOBYS key program to produce and analyze column density and temperature maps. Two preliminary catalogs were produced by extracting sources from the column density map and from Herschel maps convolved to 500 µm resolution. Herschel reveals that among the compact sources (FWHM < 0.45 pc), W3 East, W3 West, and W3 (OH) are the most massive and luminous and have the highest column density. Considering the unique properties of W3 East and W3 West, the only clumps with ongoing high-mass star formation, we suggest a "convergent constructive feedback" scenario to account for the formation of a cluster with decreasing age and increasing system/source mass toward the innermost regions. This process, which relies on feedback by high-mass stars to ensure the availability of material during cluster formation, could also lead to the creation of an environment suitable for the formation of Trapezium-like systems. In common with other scenarios proposed in other HOBYS studies, our results indicate that an active/dynamic process aiding in the accumulation, compression, and confinement of material is a critical feature of the high-mass star/cluster formation, distinguishing it from classical low-mass star formation. The environmental conditions and availability of triggers determine the form in which this process occurs, implying that high-mass star/cluster formation could arise from a range of scenarios: from large-scale convergence of turbulent flows to convergent constructive feedback or mergers of filaments.

Abstract Copyright:

Journal keyword(s): dust, extinction - infrared: stars - ISM: individual: Westerhout 3 - stars: early-type - stars: formation

Nomenclature: Fig. 5: [RMP2013b] PN (Nos P1-P3).

Simbad objects: 32

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Number of rows : 32

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2021
#notes
1 RRF 1343 HII 02 20 05.6 +61 07 04           ~ 34 1
2 EM* VES 735 Em* 02 20 07.1685543978 +61 07 05.544239059           O8.5V 14 0
3 [RMP2013b] P3 Cld 02 22 30.0 +61 23 00           ~ 1 0
4 [RMP2013b] P2 Cld 02 24 00.0 +61 33 00           ~ 1 0
5 NAME W 3 West Rad 02 25 30.5 +62 06 17           ~ 15 0
6 MPCM J022530.99+620620.9 HII 02 25 31.18 +62 06 24.5           O8V-B0.5V 96 1
7 MPCM J022540.39+620540.1 HII 02 25 40.51 +62 05 40.7           O9V-B2V 36 0
8 NAME W3 IRS 5 Y*O 02 25 40.54 +62 05 51.4           B1 330 0
9 2MASS J02254062+6205470 Y*O 02 25 40.62768 +62 05 47.0976           ~ 5 0
10 NAME W 3 IRS 5 Cluster Cl* 02 25 42 +62 06.1           ~ 73 1
11 IC 1795 HII 02 25 43.5 +62 06 13           ~ 229 0
12 MPCM J022544.35+620611.7 HII 02 25 44.26 +62 06 16.2           O6.5V-O7.5V 35 0
13 NAME W 3 East PoC 02 25 44.6 +62 06 04           ~ 9 1
14 NAME W 3 SE PoC 02 25 54.1 +62 04 25           ~ 6 0
15 BD+61 411 Y*O 02 26 34.3948 +62 00 42.380 11.09 11.14 10.28     O6.5V((f))z 55 0
16 NAME W 3 North HII 02 26 51.14 +62 15 47.2           ~ 89 0
17 [RMP2013b] P1 Cld 02 27 00.0 +61 34 00           ~ 1 0
18 NAME W 3 OH HII 02 27 04.1 +61 52 22           ~ 948 2
19 [WBN72] W 3 IRS 8 IR 02 27 04.1 +61 52 24           ~ 4 1
20 W 3 MoC 02 27 04.10 +61 52 27.1           ~ 969 3
21 [KSP2003] J022824.41+612835.4 HII 02 28 24.41 +61 28 35.4           ~ 21 0
22 NAME Heart Nebula HII 02 32.7 +61 27           ~ 287 1
23 IC 1805 OpC 02 32 42 +61 27.0   7.03 6.5     ~ 480 2
24 NAME Per Arm PoG 03 30 +45.0           ~ 1286 0
25 NAME Taurus Complex SFR 04 41.0 +25 52           ~ 3609 0
26 NAME Trapezium Cluster As* 05 35 16.5 -05 23 14           ~ 1491 1
27 IRAS 06099+1800 IR 06 12 53.3 +17 59 22           ~ 13 0
28 SNR G030.8-00.0 SNR 18 47 32 -01 56.5           ~ 452 0
29 NAME Cyg X Cld 20 28 41 +41 10.2           ~ 640 1
30 GRS G081.70 +00.50 SFR 20 39 01.6 +42 19 38           O4.5 954 0
31 NAME Local Arm reg ~ ~           ~ 390 0
32 NAME Gould Belt PoG ~ ~           ~ 737 1

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2021.01.21-05:37:31

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