A Pan-STARRS + UKIDSS search for young, wide planetary-mass companions in Upper Scorpius.
ALLER K.M., KRAUS A.L., LIU M.C., BURGETT W.S., CHAMBERS K.C., HODAPP K.W., KAISER N., MAGNIER E.A. and PRICE P.A.
Abstract (from CDS):
We have combined optical and NIR photometry from Pan-STARRS 1 and UKIDSS to search the young (5-10 Myr) star-forming region of Upper Scorpius for wide (~400-4000 AU) substellar companions down to ∼5 MJup. Our search is ~4 mag deeper than previous work based on the Two Micron All Sky Survey. We identified several candidates around known stellar members using a combination of color selection and spectral energy distribution fitting. Our follow-up spectroscopy has identified two new companions as well as confirmed two companions previously identified from photometry, with spectral types of M7.5-M9 and masses of ∼15-60 MJup, indicating a frequency for such wide substellar companions of ∼0.6%±0.3%. Both USco 1610-1913B and USco 1612-1800B are more luminous than expected for their spectral type compared with known members of Upper Sco. HIP 77900B has an extreme mass ratio (M2/M1~ 0.005) and an extreme separation of 3200 AU. USco 1602-2401B also has a very large separation of 1000 AU. We have also confirmed a low-mass stellar companion, USco 1610-2502B (730 AU, M5.5). Our substellar companions appear both non-coeval with their primary stars according to evolutionary models and, as a group, are systematically more luminous than the Upper Sco cluster sequence. One possible reason for these luminosity discrepancies could be different formation processes or accretion histories for these objects.
binaries: general - brown dwarfs - planetary systems - stars: pre-main sequence