Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 432, 2676-2684 (2013/July-2)
Multiple outflows in the planetary nebula NGC 6058.
GUILLEN P.F., VAZQUEZ R., MIRANDA L.F., ZAVALA S., CONTRERAS M.E., AYALA S. and ORTIZ-AMBRIZ A.
Abstract (from CDS):
We present narrow-band [O iii]λ5007 and Hα images, as well as long-slit high-resolution echelle spectra of the planetary nebula NGC 6058. Our data reveal that NGC 6058 is a multipolar planetary nebula of ∼ 45 arcsec in extent that is formed by four bipolar outflows oriented at different position angles. Assuming homologous expansion for all the structures, and a distance of 3.5 kpc, we obtain polar velocities of ∼ 68kms-1 for three of them. The estimated kinematical ages suggest that the three oldest outflows were ejected at intervals of ∼ 1100 and ∼ 400 yr, during which the ejection axis changed its orientation by ∼ 60° and ∼ 40°, respectively. Although an inner ring-like structure is suggested by the direct images, the kinematics shows that no equatorial ring or toroid exists in the nebula. On the contrary, the long-slit spectra reveal that the ring-like structure corresponds to a fourth outflow that is oriented almost perpendicular to the other three. This fourth outflow is the youngest one and appears to be interacting with the other three, creating a protruding zone that sweeps material in a region almost perpendicular to the major axes of the oldest outflows. This structure also presents two bright arcuate regions along the direction of the older outflows, and on opposite sides of the central star. From our model, we suggest that NGC 6058 could be at an intermediate evolutionary stage between starfish planetary nebulae and multipolar planetary nebula with apparent equatorial lobes.
© 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (2013)
ISM: jets and outflows - ISM: kinematics and dynamics - planetary nebulae: individual: NGC 6058
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