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2013MNRAS.435..329L - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 435, 329-345 (2013/October-2)

Hydrogen and helium in the spectra of Type Ia supernovae.


Abstract (from CDS):

We present predictions for hydrogen and helium emission line luminosities from circumstellar matter around Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) using time dependent photoionization modelling. Early high-resolution ESO/Very Large Telescope (VLT) optical echelle spectra of the SN Ia 2000cx were taken before and up to ∼ 70d after maximum to probe the existence of such narrow emission lines from the supernova. We detect no such lines, and from our modelling place an upper limit on the mass-loss rate for the putative wind from the progenitor system, \skew4{dot}M\lesssim 1.3×10^-5  M_☉ yr^-1, assuming a speed of 10km/s and solar abundances for the wind. If the wind would be helium-enriched and/or faster, the upper limit on \skew4{dot}M could be significantly higher. In the helium-enriched case, we show that the best line to constrain the mass-loss would be Hei λ10830. In addition to confirming the details of interstellar Nai and Caii absorption towards SN 2000cx as discussed by Patat et al., we also find evidence for 6613.56Å diffuse interstellar band absorption in the Milky Way. We also discuss measurements of the X-ray emission from the interaction between the supernova ejecta and the wind and we re-evaluate observations of SN 1992A obtained ∼ 16d after maximum by Schlegel & Petre. We find an upper limit of \skew4{dot}M∼1.3×10^-5  M_☉ yr^-1 which is significantly higher than that estimated by Schlegel & Petre. These results, together with the previous observational work on the normal SNe Ia 1994D and 2001el, disfavour a symbiotic star in the upper mass-loss rate regime (so-called Mira-type systems) from being the likely progenitor scenario for these SNe. Our model calculations are general, and can also be used for the subclass of SNe Ia that do show circumstellar interaction, e.g. the recent PTF 11kx. To constrain hydrogen in late-time spectra, we present ESO/VLT and ESO/New Technology Telescope optical and infrared observations of SNe Ia 1998bu and 2000cx in the nebular phase, 251-388d after maximum. We see no signs of hydrogen line emission in SNe 1998bu and 2000cx at these epochs, and from the absence of Hα with a width of the order of ∼ 103km/s, we argue from modelling that the mass of such hydrogen-rich gas must be ≲ 0.03M for both supernovae. Comparing similar upper limits with recent models of Pan et al., it seems that hydrogen-rich donors with a separation of ≲ 5 times the radius of the donor may be ruled out for the five SNe Ia 1998bu, 2000cx, 2001el, 2005am and 2005cf. Larger separation, helium-rich donors, or a double-degenerate origin for these supernovae seems more likely. Our models have also been used to put the limit on hydrogen-rich gas in the recent SN 2011fe, and for this supernova, a double-degenerate origin seems likely.

Abstract Copyright: © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (2013)

Journal keyword(s): circumstellar matter - supernovae: general - supernovae: individual: SN 1992A - supernovae: individual: SN 1998bu - supernovae: individual: SN 2000cx

Simbad objects: 34

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