2013MNRAS.436.2852B


C.D.S. - SIMBAD4 rel 1.7 - 2019.10.18CEST02:24:19

2013MNRAS.436.2852B - Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc., 436, 2852-2863 (2013/December-2)

Constraining globular cluster formation through studies of young massive clusters - I. A lack of ongoing star formation within young clusters.

BASTIAN N., CABRERA-ZIRI I., DAVIES B. and LARSEN S.S.

Abstract (from CDS):

We present a survey of 130 Galactic and extragalactic young massive clusters (YMCs, 104 < M/M < 108, 10 < t/Myr < 1000) with integrated spectroscopy or resolved stellar photometry (40 presented here and 90 from the literature) and use the sample to search for evidence of ongoing star formation within the clusters. Such episodes of secondary (or continuous) star formation are predicted by models that attempt to explain the observed chemical and photometric anomalies observed in globular clusters as being due to the formation of a second stellar population within an existing first population. Additionally, studies that have claimed extended star formation histories within Large/Small Magellanic Cloud intermediate-age clusters (1-2Gyr), also imply that many YMCs should show ongoing star formation. Based on visual inspection of the spectra and/or the colour-magnitude diagrams, we do not find evidence for ongoing star formation within any of the clusters, and use this to place constraints on the above models. Models of continuous star formation within clusters, lasting for hundreds of Myr, are ruled out at high significance (unless stellar initial mass function variations are invoked). Models for the (nearly instantaneous) formation of a secondary population within an existing first generation are not favoured, but are not formally discounted due to the finite sampling of age/mass-space.

Abstract Copyright: © 2013 The Authors Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society (2013)

Journal keyword(s): open clusters and associations: general - galaxies: star clusters: general

Simbad objects: 130

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Number of rows : 130

N Identifier Otype ICRS (J2000)
RA
ICRS (J2000)
DEC
Mag U Mag B Mag V Mag R Mag I Sp type #ref
1850 - 2019
#notes
1 NGC 34 Sy2 00 11 06.612 -12 06 28.33   14.14 13.52     ~ 301 0
2 [SS2007] 2 Cl* 00 11 06.903 -12 06 31.55   20.18 20.04   19.33 ~ 3 0
3 [SS2007] 1 Cl* 00 11 06.997 -12 06 21.76   19.45 19.38   18.77 ~ 8 0
4 Bol 314 GlC 00 39 44.59 +40 14 07.9 18.56 18.22 17.63 17.08 16.67 ~ 28 1
5 2MASX J00394856+4031304 GlC 00 39 48.570 +40 31 30.45 16.57 16.55 16.24 16.03 15.58 ~ 51 1
6 NAME VDB 0 OpC 00 40 29.385 +40 36 15.20 14.957 14.94 15.288 15.056 14.701 ~ 42 2
7 Bol 49 GlC 00 41 45.57 +40 49 55.0 18.26 18.08 17.56 17.11 16.87 ~ 36 1
8 M 31 G 00 42 44.330 +41 16 07.50 4.86 4.36 3.44     ~ 10562 1
9 BA 3-25 GlC 00 44 47.1952661535 +42 05 32.601974266 18.60 18.43 18.16 17.59 17.15 ~ 27 1
10 NAME SMC G 00 52 38.0 -72 48 01   2.79 2.2     ~ 9089 1
11 NGC 330 Cl* 00 56 20.59 -72 27 12.5 9.37 9.76 9.55   8.89 ~ 359 0
12 NAME Fornax Dwarf Spheroidal G 02 39 59.3 -34 26 57   9.02 7.4     ~ 1406 1
13 [LB2002] n1023-4 GlC 02 40 36.956 +39 03 28.21           ~ 3 0
14 2MASXI J0240377+390326 GiG 02 40 37.7 +39 03 29       14.52   ~ 40 1
15 [LB2002] n1023-3 GlC 02 40 37.895 +39 03 31.50           ~ 3 0
16 [DSB2004] 6 Cl* 02 54 33.058 -10 01 42.67           ~ 2 0
17 NGC 1140 EmG 02 54 33.5258827369 -10 01 43.135585379 12.41 12.84 12.49 13.6 13.5 ~ 254 1
18 [SL2011] NGC 1313 3 7 Cl* 03 17 47.7631398321 -66 30 18.640980566 17.75 18.26 18.13   17.53 ~ 6 0
19 NGC 1313 G 03 18 16.046 -66 29 53.74   10.06 10.0 9.40 10.4 ~ 585 2
20 3C 84 Sy2 03 19 48.1597607660 +41 30 42.114155434   13.10 12.48 11.09   ~ 3460 3
21 NAME NGC 1569 CL* B Cl* 04 30 49.0 +64 50 53           ~ 70 0
22 NGC 1569 IG 04 30 49.186 +64 50 52.52 11.72 11.86 11.03     ~ 1137 3
23 [BHE2002] NGC 1705 1 Cl* 04 54 08.62 -53 21 22.7           ~ 5 0
24 NGC 1705 SBG 04 54 13.500 -53 21 39.82 12.32 12.96 12.56 12.58 12.9 ~ 579 1
25 NGC 1856 Cl* 05 09 30.290 -69 07 45.08   10.40 10.06     ~ 134 0
26 NGC 1866 GlC 05 13 38.920 -65 27 52.75   9.98 9.73     ~ 385 0
27 NAME LMC G 05 23 34.6 -69 45 22     0.4     ~ 14324 1
28 RMC 136 Cl* 05 38 42.396 -69 06 03.36   9.63 9.50     ~ 1674 2
29 [L2004] n2835-622 Cl* 09 17 50.74 -22 22 00.7   19.7 19.54     ~ 3 0
30 NGC 2835 EmG 09 17 52.8544120356 -22 21 16.837188516   11.03   10.32 10.9 ~ 167 0
31 [L99] n2997-696 Cl* 09 45 28.50 -31 10 59.8   19.38 19.26     ~ 2 0
32 [L99] n2997-645 Cl* 09 45 33.40 -31 11 20.9   18.31 18.28     ~ 2 0
33 [L99] n2997-836 Cl* 09 45 33.80 -31 10 01.8   18.11 17.96     ~ 2 0
34 [L99] n2997-405 Cl* 09 45 35.12 -31 13 10.1   18.64 18.57     ~ 2 0
35 NGC 2997 GiG 09 45 38.7537949543 -31 11 27.357027761   9.97 9.41 8.84 9.9 ~ 368 0
36 [L2004] n2997-715 Cl* 09 45 40.63 -31 10 50.8   17.61 17.67     ~ 3 0
37 [L99] n2997-648 Cl* 09 45 44.18 -31 11 14.6   19.39 19.31     ~ 2 0
38 [L99] n2997-679 Cl* 09 45 47.01 -31 11 05.3   17.03 16.98     ~ 2 0
39 [L99] n2997-693 Cl* 09 45 48.92 -31 10 54.9   17.28 17.27     ~ 2 0
40 [L99] n2997-690 Cl* 09 45 51.34 -31 10 56.3   20.08 20.15     ~ 2 0
41 [LHL2013] 365 GlC 09 55 41.83 +69 40 22.1 21.745 21.07 19.897   18.55 ~ 3 0
42 [LHL2013] 400 GlC 09 55 43.68 +69 40 23.4 21.838 21.11 19.294   18.14 ~ 3 0
43 [KBS2008] 43.2 GlC 09 55 46.61 +69 40 44.0 19.886 19.90 18.593   18.35 ~ 4 0
44 [SWG2006] F Cl* 09 55 47.08 +69 40 42.3   17.61 16.50   14.94 ~ 60 0
45 MGG 11 Cl* 09 55 50.2 +69 40 45           ~ 65 0
46 [KBS2008] 58 Cl* 09 55 50.27 +69 40 35.0   20.25 19.72   18.75 ~ 2 0
47 MGG 9 Cl* 09 55 50.5 +69 40 45           ~ 24 0
48 M 82 IG 09 55 52.430 +69 40 46.93 9.61 9.30 8.41     ~ 5213 6
49 [KBS2008] 78.1 Cl* 09 55 52.64 +69 40 46.9   21.16 20.76   19.50 ~ 2 0
50 [KBS2008] 78.2 Cl* 09 55 53.13 +69 40 49.1   20.43 19.36   16.89 ~ 2 0
51 [SWG2006] B2-1 GlC 09 55 54.60 +69 41 01.7 20.357 19.04 17.699   16.40 ~ 12 0
52 [SBK2007] 25 GlC 09 55 55.65 +69 41 05.9 19.051 19.11 18.259   17.68 ~ 7 0
53 [KBS2008] 103.2 Cl* 09 55 57.04 +69 41 07.3   19.85 19.10   17.88 ~ 2 0
54 [LHL2013] 736 GlC 09 55 58.40 +69 41 08.7 21.717 20.97 19.543   18.65 ~ 6 0
55 [SBK2007] 1 GlC 09 56 03.39 +69 41 12.3 18.556 18.56 17.620   16.97 ~ 9 0
56 [LHL2013] 855 GlC 09 56 05.50 +69 41 42.2 21.383 21.09 19.929   19.01 ~ 3 0
57 [SOY2005] M82 GCC B12 Cl* 09 56 12.50 +69 41 16.5   21.41 20.70   19.44 ~ 3 0
58 [TBS2007] T1149 Cl* 10 27 35.88 -43 52 51.1           ~ 2 0
59 [TBS2007] T1165 Cl* 10 27 37.88 -43 53 45.1           ~ 2 0
60 [TBS2007] T1127 Cl* 10 27 38.50 -43 54 19.9           ~ 2 0
61 [TBS2007] T1078 Cl* 10 27 48.960 -43 54 21.17           ~ 2 0
62 [TBS2007] T88 Cl* 10 27 49.130 -43 54 22.04           ~ 2 0
63 [TBS2007] T99 Cl* 10 27 49.720 -43 54 21.03           ~ 2 0
64 [TBS2007] T112 Cl* 10 27 50.560 -43 54 28.61           ~ 2 0
65 NGC 3256 IG 10 27 51.284 -43 54 13.55   11.83 11.33 10.62 11.9 ~ 732 2
66 [TBS2007] T661 Cl* 10 27 51.370 -43 54 09.22           ~ 2 0
67 NGC 3603 HII 11 15 24 -61 15.0           ~ 920 2
68 NGC 3621 AGN 11 18 16.300 -32 48 45.36 10.10 9.44 9.56 8.07 10.1 ~ 474 3
69 [L2004] n3621-1275 Cl* 11 18 17.39 -32 47 57.9   18.23 18.03     ~ 3 0
70 [L2004] n3621-630 Cl* 11 18 19.44 -32 49 35.2   20.03 19.32     ~ 2 0
71 S96 1 Gl? 11 51 05.763 +55 04 42.39     22.17     ~ 5 0
72 S96 2 Gl? 11 51 06.633 +55 04 55.51     22.31     ~ 4 0
73 NGC 3921 IG 11 51 06.8746094191 +55 04 43.392337063   13.4 12.64     ~ 232 0
74 [BTK2009] T395 Cl* 12 01 50.681 -18 51 26.00           ~ 2 0
75 [BTK2009] T299 Cl* 12 01 52.480 -18 53 20.20           ~ 2 0
76 [BTK2009] T296 Cl* 12 01 52.624 -18 53 33.80           ~ 2 0
77 NGC 4038 GiP 12 01 53.002 -18 52 03.32   10.91   9.74 11.0 ~ 1263 1
78 [BTK2009] T352 Cl* 12 01 53.022 -18 52 10.60           ~ 5 0
79 NAME Antennae IG 12 01 53.170 -18 52 37.92           ~ 1532 0
80 [BTK2009] T111 Cl* 12 01 53.379 -18 51 39.20           ~ 3 0
81 [BTK2009] T130 Cl* 12 01 55.360 -18 51 38.90           ~ 2 0
82 [BTK2009] T297 Cl* 12 02 00.112 -18 54 33.30           ~ 2 0
83 [BHE2002] NGC 4214 10 Cl* 12 15 37.22 +36 19 56.4           ~ 8 0
84 [BHE2002] NGC 4214 13 Cl* 12 15 38.16 +36 19 44.4           ~ 8 0
85 NGC 4228 SBG 12 15 39.174 +36 19 36.80 10.63 10.30 9.93 9.74   ~ 846 1
86 [ATA2011] 48 GlC 12 28 10.35 +44 05 35.8   18.68 18.27   17.43 ~ 9 0
87 NGC 4449 EmG 12 28 11.118 +44 05 36.81 10.11 9.98 9.64 9.45   ~ 989 1
88 [GHG2001] 47 GlC 12 28 13.9511684097 +44 06 42.894499278   18.15 17.83   17.19 ~ 9 0
89 NGC 4676 IG 12 46 10.18 +30 43 53.7   14.1       ~ 295 0
90 [CBK2007] S1 Cl* 12 46 12.00 +30 43 02.5           ~ 3 0
91 M 51 GiP 13 29 52.698 +47 11 42.93   9.26 8.36 8.40   ~ 3683 4
92 [BGG2008] 3cl-a Cl* 13 29 55.5798 +47 11 50.884   18.686 18.633   18.006 ~ 7 0
93 [L2004] n5236-821 Cl* 13 36 38.27 -29 52 17.1   19.08 18.97     ~ 3 0
94 [L2004] n5236-599 Cl* 13 36 39.89 -29 53 02.5   20.36 19.88     ~ 2 0
95 [L2004] n5236-676 Cl* 13 36 40.27 -29 52 44.2   20.94 20.48     ~ 2 0
96 [L2004] n5236-254 Cl* 13 36 40.40 -29 54 46.9   18.23 17.9     ~ 5 0
97 [L2004] n5236-236 Cl* 13 36 42.36 -29 54 54.4   21.03 20.69     ~ 2 0
98 [L2004] n5236-487 Cl* 13 36 43.17 -29 53 26.1   19.59 19.33     ~ 4 0
99 [L2004] n5236-310 Cl* 13 36 44.30 -29 54 22.2   20.55 19.99     ~ 2 0
100 [L2004] n5236-515 Cl* 13 36 59.70 -29 53 17.1   19.37 19.35     ~ 2 0
101 M 83 SBG 13 37 00.919 -29 51 56.74 8.85 8.11 7.52 7.21   ~ 2160 2
102 [L99] n5236-1182 Cl* 13 37 01.28 -29 50 49.8   16.77 16.73     ~ 4 0
103 [L2004] n5236-429 Cl* 13 37 01.41 -29 53 37.6   20.09 19.96     ~ 2 0
104 [L2004] n5236-805 Cl* 13 37 01.84 -29 52 13.3   16.37 16.14     ~ 20 0
105 [L2004] n5236-218 Cl* 13 37 02.360 -29 55 00.14 21.09 21.00 20.64   20.34 ~ 3 0
106 [L2004] n5236-367 Cl* 13 37 02.430 -29 53 57.74   18.90 18.73   18.15 ~ 4 0
107 [WCK2011] 58 Cl* 13 37 02.8001 -29 52 35.571   19.51 19.17     ~ 4 0
108 [L99] n5236-1234 Cl* 13 37 04.58 -29 50 35.9   17.63 17.67     ~ 4 0
109 [L99] n5236-502 Cl* 13 37 06.12 -29 53 18.4     17.51     ~ 12 0
110 Cl Westerlund 1 OpC 16 47 04.00 -45 51 04.9           ~ 441 0
111 RSGC 1 OpC 18 37 58 -06 53.0           ~ 83 0
112 Cl Stephenson 2 OpC 18 39 20 -06 01.7           ~ 79 0
113 NGC 6946 H2G 20 34 52.332 +60 09 13.24   10.5       ~ 2181 2
114 [WSL93] 3 GlC 22 20 43.878 -24 40 37.87     17.86     ~ 46 0
115 [WSL93] 6 GlC 22 20 44.135 -24 40 27.60     19.43     ~ 8 0
116 NGC 7252 IG 22 20 44.7751096408 -24 40 41.905677809 12.26 12.46 12.06 11.57   ~ 655 1
117 [WSL93] 26 GlC 22 20 45.272 -24 40 32.30     20.30     ~ 8 0
118 [WSL93] 30 GlC 22 20 45.493 -24 40 49.36     19.39     ~ 15 0
119 [TKB2012] T113 Cl* 22 35 55.48 +33 57 10.6           ~ 2 0
120 NAME Stephan's Quintet CGG 22 35 57.5 +33 57 36           ~ 373 1
121 [TKB2012] T123 Cl* 22 35 59.31 +33 58 15.1           ~ 2 0
122 [TKB2012] T121 Cl* 22 35 59.77 +33 57 39.0           ~ 2 0
123 [TKB2012] T120 Cl* 22 36 00.03 +33 57 46.5           ~ 2 0
124 [TKB2012] T119 Cl* 22 36 00.41 +33 58 03.6           ~ 2 0
125 [TKB2012] T118 Cl* 22 36 08.77 +33 57 21.0           ~ 3 0
126 [TKB2012] T122 Cl* 22 36 10.25 +33 57 23.3           ~ 3 0
127 [L99] n7793-298 Cl* 23 57 35.880 -32 35 40.92 16.59 17.24 17.22   16.75 ~ 4 0
128 NGC 7793 GiG 23 57 49.7533807411 -32 35 27.708304655 10.26 9.74 9.28 9.06 9.7 ~ 888 2
129 [OM78] L PoG ~ ~           ~ 3 0
130 [HFS92] 1 GlC ~ ~   18.98 18.65     ~ 8 0

    Equat.    Gal    SGal    Ecl

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2019.10.18-02:24:19

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