On the formation of SMC X-1: the effect of mass and orbital angular momentum loss.
LI T. and LI X.-D.
Abstract (from CDS):
SMC X-1 is a high-mass X-ray binary with an orbital period of 3.9 days. The mass of the neutron star is as low as ∼1M☉, suggesting that it was likely formed through an electron-capture supernova rather than an iron-core collapse supernova. From the present system configurations, we argue that the orbital period at the supernova was ≲ 10 days. Since the mass transfer process between the neutron star's progenitor and the companion star before the supernova should have increased the orbital period to tens of days, a mechanism with efficient orbit angular momentum loss and relatively small mass loss is required to account for its current orbital period. We have calculated the evolution of the progenitor binary systems from zero-age main sequence to the pre-supernova stage with different initial parameters and various mass and angular momentum loss mechanisms. Our results show that the outflow from the outer Lagrangian point or a circumbinary disk formed during the mass transfer phase may be qualified for this purpose. We point out that these mechanisms may be popular in binary evolution and significantly affect the formation of compact star binaries.